where [bar.[r.sub.1A](0, T)] [equivalent to] [a.sub.AB] (0,T) is the mean nearest neighbor distance between atoms A in interstitial alloy AB at zero pressure and temperature T, [bar.[r.sub.1A](0,0)] is the mean nearest neighbor distance between atoms A in interstitial alloy AB at zero pressure, 0 K, [r.sub.1A] (0,0) is the nearest neighbor distance between atoms A in clean metal A at zero pressure, 0 K, [r'.sub.1A] (0,0) is the nearest neighbor distance between atoms A in the zone containing the interstitial atom
B at zero pressure and 0 K, and [c.sub.B] is the concentration of interstitial atoms
If the interstitial atom
does not "wait" to be taken by a network trouble (vacancy, granule limit, dislocation) for jump, the diffusion coefficient can be relative big (Voiculescu, 2005).
Since there is a high density of interstitial atoms
in the cases of SIA = 200 and SIA = 300, the result may imply that larger sized SIA clusters can be absorbed by the grain boundary more easily.
The editors have organized the contributions that make up the main body of the text in seven chapters devoted to the heat of trasport in solids, surface hardening of titanium alloys by diffusion of interstitial atoms
, and a wide variety of other related subjects.
Irradiation of materials with electrons and light ions introduces predominantly isolated interstitial atoms
and vacancies (Frenkel pairs) and small clusters of these point defects, because of the low average recoil atom energies (0.1-1 keV).
On the shorter timescales, radiation-damaged materials underwent a "loading" process at the grain boundaries, in which interstitial atoms
became trapped-or loaded-into the grain oundary.
Using three different computer simulation methods, the researchers looked at the interaction between defects and grain boundaries on time scales ranging from picoseconds to microseconds (one-trillionth of a second to one-millionth of a second).On the shorter timescales, radiation-damaged materials underwent a "loading" process at the grain boundaries, in which interstitial atoms
became trapped - or loaded - into the grain boundary.
In the nuclear stopping, the ion directly kicks the atoms in the material from the original position and produces lattice defects consisting of vacancies and interstitial atoms
. In the electron stopping, the kinetic energy of the ion is first converted to the electrons in the matter and is then transferred to the lattice, and it may finally cause atomic displacements and produce defects.
Under irradiation, the P diffusion coefficient of an element (e.g., phosphorus) is calculated taking into account the production and recombination of vacancies and interstitial atoms
, annihilation of point defects on the various sinks, mainly dislocations (for more details, see Section 3).
It makes AZO films increase oxygen defects, zinc interstitial atoms
, and grain size .
As a consequence, this theoretical result predicts that the presence of interstitial atoms
can generate a semifilled band which is compatible with the experimental findings  which complies with the characteristic requirements of an appropriate IB photovoltaic material.
High formability is required to form these components, but the solute carbon and nitrogen, as the interstitial atoms
in low-carbon steel, play a significant role in formability deterioration.