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in biology, aggregation of cells that are similar in form and function and the intercellular substances produced by them. The fundamental tissues in animals are epithelial, nerve, connective, and muscle tissue; blood and lymph are commonly classed separately as vascular tissue. In the higher plants, there are four main types of tissue: (1) meristematic tissue (apical meristem and cambium), composed of cells that grow, divide, and differentiate into all the other cell types; (2) protective tissue (epidermis and cork), composed of thick-walled cells that cover roots, stem, and leaves; (3) fundamental tissues, consisting of cells that make up the bulk of the plant body, including parenchyma (thin-walled cells used for food storage), collenchyma (moderately thick-walled cells used for strength), and sclerenchyma (heavily thick-walled cells used for support in stems and roots); and (4) vascular tissue (xylem and phloem), specialized cells used for conduction. Organs are usually composed of several tissues. In many diseases there are apparent changes in tissue (see pathologypathology,
study of the cause of disease and the modifications in cellular function and changes in cellular structure produced in any cell, organ, or part of the body by disease. The changes in tissue include degeneration, atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and inflammation.
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). Histologyhistology
, study of the groups of specialized cells called tissues that are found in most multicellular plants and animals. Histologists study the organization of tissues at all levels, from the whole organ down to the molecular components of cells.
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 is the study of the structure of tissues.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/


An aggregation of cells more or less similar morphologically and functionally. The animal body is composed of four primary tissues, namely, epithelium, connective tissue (including bone, cartilage, and blood), muscle, and nervous tissue. The process of differentiation and maturation of tissues is called histogenesis. See Histology

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in biology, an aggregation of cells that are similar in origin, structure, and function. Tissues also include intercellular substances and structures that are products of cellular activity.

Animal tissues. Four types of animal tissues have been isolated, corresponding to the body’s principal somatic functions. Epithelial tissue comprises the skin and the membranes of the internal organs; its derivatives perform secretory functions and constitute, for example, the bulk of the liver and pancreas. Connective tissue, including that of the blood, performs nutritive and protective functions. Derivatives of connective tissue—cartilage and bone—comprise the supporting skeletal structure of vertebrates. Muscular tissue performs motor functions, moving the body and producing contractions of the organs. Nerve tissue regulates and coordinates the activity of all tissues, receives signals from the external environment, and determines the body’s respective reactions.

The development of each type of tissue is the result of a specific type of histogenesis occurring during the embryonal period. In many tissues, histogenesis continues in adult life, ensuring the regeneration and sometimes the growth of tissues. The functions specific to a given organ are usually performed by a single type of tissue, or by a number of specialized cells of that tissue. In all organs, different types of tissues interact to promote the nutritive and coordinative functions of the organ. The activity of tissue cells depends on their interrelationship within the tissue, as well as on outside hormonal and neural influences.

In lower organisms the tissues are not as distinctly differentiated as in higher ones. The evolution of organisms led to the specialization of cells and to the mutual interdependence of the cells’ functions and very existence within a system containing different types of tissues. However, by making a model of the cell environment, it is possible to keep cells alive outside the body and to develop tissues through tissue culture, which has become one of the principal methods of studying tissues. Histology is the study of animal tissues.


Plant tissues. The growth of a plant and the development of its internal structure depend on the activity of formative tissue, or meristem, whose derivatives undergo complex structural and functional differentiation when converting to elements of permanent tissues. The classification of permanent tissues is based on morphological, functional, and genetic features; an example is the distinction between parenchyma and prosenchyma. Permanent tissues belong to one of three systems: dermal, conductive, and fundamental (ground). In the ontogenesis of plants, these systems reflect the major stages in the internal differentiation of the plant during the process of evolution.

The most widely accepted physiological classification of plant tissues, that of G. Haberlandt, divides permanent tissues into a number of systems. These include the dermal system, composed of epidermis, cork, and cortex, and the mechanical system, composed of collenchyma (parenchyma cells with walls of irregular thickness) and sclerenchyma (lignified fibers and more or less iso-diametric sclereids). The absorptive system absorbs substances by means of rhizoids and root hairs made of epiblem. In Orchida-ceae, this function is performed by the multilayered epidermis (velamen) of the aerial roots. The assimilatory tissue system consists of parenchyma cells with many chloroplasts, and the conductive system consists of the xylem, which conducts water, and the phloem, which conducts the movement of organic matter. Further tissue systems are the storage system, consisting of parenchyma cells, the secretory system, which includes hydathodes, lati-cifers, and reservoirs for discharged substances, and the aeration system, consisting of intercellular spaces, stomata, and lenticels. All tissues except those of the dermal, conductive, and aeration systems are variants of fundamental (ground) tissue. Plant anatomy is the discipline that studies plant tissues.


Eames, A. J., and L. H. MacDaniels. Vvedenie v anatomiiu rastenii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935. (Translated from English.)
Krasheninnikov, F. N. Lektsii po anatomii rastenii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
Borodin, I. P. Kurs anatomii rastenii, 5th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1938.
Razdorskii, V. F. Anatomiia rastenii. Moscow, 1949.
Iatsenko-Khmelevskii, A. A. Kratkii kurs anatomii rastenii, Moscow, 1961.
Esau, K. Anatomiia rastenii. Moscow, 1969. (Translated from English.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An aggregation of cells more or less similar morphologically and functionally.
A sheer woven fabric or gauze, usually of fine quality.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. a part of an organism consisting of a large number of cells having a similar structure and function
2. a woven cloth, esp of a light gauzy nature, originally interwoven with threads of gold or silver
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Immunohistochemical streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (SABC) staining showed that ghrelin-ip cells were present in the tubular compartments and among the interstitial tissue in the testes of African ostrich (Fig.
Finally, in the interstitial tissue, Cxcl8a/Cxcr2 would guide neutrophils to the wound.
Interstitial tissue was filled with interstitial Leydig cells, small blood vessels, collagen fibres, and fibroblasts (Figure 1(a)).
In the non-alcoholic control groups, Leydig cells were normally distributed throughout interstitial tissue cells, totaling 1000 cells in 130.5 fields.
(2010) who did not observed difference in testis weights in animals treated with a single dose of 200 mg [kg.sup.-1] of CP, although histological analyses revealed a significant damage of seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues.
In the 3NPA group we found an enlargement of cardiomyocytes (3NPA = 15.989[micro]m [+ or -] 1.649; saline = 13.456[micro]m [+ or -] 0.786, n = 5-6) due to cellular swelling, loss of cell cross-striations with a lower myofibril volume fraction (3NPA = 0.3922[mm.sup.3]/[mm.sup.3] [+ or -] 0.0230, saline = 0.4550[mm.sup.3]/[mm.sup.3] [+ or -] 0.0083, n = 5-6) and an increased volume density of interstitial tissue (3NPA = 0.0531 [mm.sup.3]/[mm.sup.3] [+ or -] 0.0090, saline = 0.0135[mm.sup.3]/ [mm.sup.3] [+ or -] 0.0051, n = 5-6).
Quantitative analysis of pulmonary scintigrams in broncho-pulmonary paecilomycosis with predominance of the signs of inflammation process in the lungs parenchyma and interstitial tissue has demonstrated that in 2 (3.7%) observations the change of capillary blood circulation was not determined.
Eosinophils may also be present in the interstitial tissue and eosinophilic microabscess formation may be observed.
Additionally, ground MWCNT, administered to rats via intratracheal instillation, were better dispersed in the parenchyma and also produced granulomas in the interstitial tissue (Muller et al.
Fresher and more telling is the interstitial tissue that emerges as the film's most substantial material: Ellie's necessary use of her car as a dressing room, in which she must change elaborate costumes, apply makeup and fix her hair, sometimes while frantically driving to an audition that may well be canceled; her getting into character and rehearsing lines and trying to nail a Brooklyn accent, also in the car and while fighting Los Angeles traffic and, hilariously, indulging in an impromptu contest with her best friend and similarly thwarted thesp, Sam (Rebecca Rigg)--again in the car--to see who can cry fastest.
The research team learned that in the first group, calcium phosphate crystals are initially deposited in the interstitial tissue inside the papilla.