. In this section, we briefly explain interval arithmetic
Some Properties of the Interval Arithmetic
In , particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is combined with interval arithmetic
to realize array synthesis in the presence of array excitation amplitude error.
Furthermore it is caused by the intrinsic wrapping effect of the interval arithmetic
. Although the overestimation is obvious, the overestimation is controlled in reasonable range.
The values of [[epsilon].sub.L.sub.i] and [[epsilon].sub.U.sub.i] can be determined using interval arithmetic
(defined in Section 2).
The canonical self-validated computation model is interval arithmetic
. Several other models have been designed to produce more accurate error estimates, usually by storing more information about the computed quantities and how they relate to the input data.
The enclosure property (1.4) carries over to expressions: If r([x.sub.1],...,[x.sub.n]) is an arithmetic expression in the variables [x.sub.1],..., [x.sub.n], then its interval arithmetic
evaluation r([x.sub.1],..., [x.sub.n]), an interval, contains the range of r for
Interval extensions are functions where interval arithmetic
is applied to calculate results.
Yang (2004) Fuzzy AHP based on the (A) Confidence interval fuzzy interval arithmetic
and geometric mean and confidence levels with approach express the interval mean approach.
Papers from a June 2009 symposium are presented here, in sections on algorithms and number systems, arithmetic hardware, finite fields and cryptography, mathematical software, decimal hardware, floating-point techniques, decimal transcendents, automated synthesis of arithmetic operations, decimal arithmetic in industry, and interval arithmetic
. Specific topics covered include polynomial multiplication over finite fields using field extensions and interpolation, fast and accurate Bessel function computation, certified and fast computation of supremum norms of approximation errors, and computation of decimal transcendental functions using the CORDIC algorithm.
Unfortunately, most hardware and software systems do not support an interval arithmetic
The possibility of estimating bounds for this econometric likelihood function by balanced random interval arithmetic
is experimentally investigated in (Zilinskas and Bogle 2006).