Discussing probability and statistics needed by physicists and engineers, they cover random phenomena, probability, random variables, expected values, commonly used discrete distributions, commonly used density functions, joint distributions, some multivariate distributions, a collection of random variables, sampling distributions, estimation, interval estimation
, tests of statistical hypotheses, model building and regression, and designing experiments and analyzing variance.
The more reliable method is the interval estimation
The most common techniques which are generalized for fuzzy data are presented as: Wu (2009) states that based on fuzzy measurements, confidence interval estimation
for the fuzzy data is presented.
This technology consists of high sensitive spread-spectrum radar and feature-based heartbeat interval estimation
algorithm, and enables to measure heart rate and its intervals in real time without placing sensors on the body with as high accuracy as electrocardiographs.
Dey  applied this by providing point and interval estimation
methods for the scale parameter of the Rayleigh distribution under progressive Type-II censoring with binomial removal.
Tsai and Wardell (2006) have developed a VBA- driven Excel spreadsheet that is built around one simple business scenario and aimed to improve the effectiveness of teaching three concepts in business statistics: the Central Limit Theorem, interval estimation
and hypothesis testing.
Panel A is based on interval estimation
of Equation (1) and panel B is based on Probit estimation of Equation (2).
However the more general problem of interval estimation
for a linear function of binomial proportions mentioned by Price and Bonett (2004), including pairwise comparisons, complex contrasts, interaction effects and simple main effects (BONETT; WOODWARD, 1987), are factors that influence the probability coverage estimate.
Shieh examined the accuracy of Equation 1 for 27 additional conditions and concluded that Equation 1 is "not recommended for precise interval estimation
of squared multiple correlation coefficient in multiple regression analysis" (p.
2011) have been introduced to achieve interval estimation
This goal often falls short in veterinary medicine when adequate sample sizes for stable interval estimation
are often not met given the difficulty in obtaining specimens from healthy subsets of species, which is related to time and cost considerations as well as access to appropriate numbers of specimens from a single species in which patient history may not be complete.
Heterogeneity nature of real properties that could make one property to be different from the others; coupled with imperfect nature of property market that is characterised by inadequate information were responsible for interval estimation
of values as against point estimation of values by valuers, users and investors.