large intestine

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large intestine:

see intestineintestine,
muscular hoselike portion of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the lower end of the stomach (pylorus) to the anal opening. In humans this fairly narrow (about 1 in./2.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Intestine, Large


the portion of the gut of vertebrate animals and man that extends from the termination of the small intestine to the anus in cyclostomes, man, and most fishes and mammals. In chondrichthians, lungfish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and monotremes, the large intestine empties into a cloaca. Considerable absorption of water from the residual chyme takes place in the large intestine, with subsequent formation of the feces.

In mammals, including man, the large intestine is divided into the colon, with its ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid portions, and the rectum. The cecum, or blind gut, is situated at the place where the small intestine passes into the large intestine. In herbivores, marsupials, ungulates, and some rodents the cecum is of considerable size; it is absent in some insecti-vores, ursids, edentates, cetaceans, and hippopotamuses. Many rodents and some predators, prosimians, and monkeys, in addition to man, have a narrow tube at the end of the cecum, the vermiform appendix.

The length of the large intestine is 1–2 m in man, 6.5–14 m in cattle, 0.28–0.9 m in dogs, 0.2–0.45 m in cats, and 3.5–6 m in swine. In man the diameter of the large intestine is 7 cm in the initial section and 4 cm in the descending colon. The wall of the large intestine is composed of mucous, submucous, and serous membranes and a muscular coat. Bacteria multiply enormously in the large intestine; they help form an immunologic barrier and react against pathogenic microbes. The bacteria complete the hydrolization of the components of digestive secretions and of undigested food residues; they also synthesize vitamins, enzymes, and other physiologically active substances.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

large intestine

[′lärj in′tes·tən]
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

large intestine

the part of the alimentary canal consisting of the caecum, colon, and rectum. It extracts moisture from food residues, which are later excreted as faeces
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005