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hemorrhage (hĕmˈərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemia, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shock. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aid.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The escape of blood from the vascular system.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Fetal intracranial hemorrhage is identified in up to 1 per 1000 births in referral centers.
Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that intracranial hemorrhage is a risk factor for increased retinal hemorrhage.
Eligible patients were categorized as being either with or without intracranial hemorrhage. Clinical comparisons between the two groups were compared using descriptive statistics.
Chang et al., "Thirty-day mortality after ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation on and off anticoagulants," Stroke, vol.
Bart Jr., "Intracranial hemorrhage in herpes simplex encephalitis: An unusual presentation," Pediatric Neurology, vol.
This meta-analysis indicated that any stroke, ischemic stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage within 30 days in medical therapy alone were lower, compared with PTAS plus medical therapy.
The relationship between remission-induction therapy (ATRA with or without chemotherapy) and changes in CT images of intracranial hemorrhage was examined in 5 patients who developed hemorrhage before remission (including one patient with intracranial hemorrhage before treatment).
In children under 12 months, the abuse diagnosis rates were 4.3% for isolated skull fracture, 26.3% for intracranial hemorrhage, and 18%-19% for arm or leg fracture.
INTRODUCTION: Fetal intracranial hemorrhage occurs in 5 in 10,000 pregnancies (1).
Norman McSwain, MD, an internationally renowned trauma surgeon, died at the age of 78 on July 28, 2015, eleven days after suffering an intracranial hemorrhage. He will be missed by many, including those of us at the Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society, where he had served on the editorial board since 2002.
In the study group, intracranial hemorrhage was found with a rate of 27.85%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia was found with a rate of 4.91%, pneumothorax was found with a rate of 3.27%, necrotizing enterocolitis was found with a rate of 3.27%, patent ductus arteriosus was found with a rate of 16.39, sepsis was found with a rate of 22.95% and retinopathy of prematurity was found with a rate of 1.63%.
Two small retrospective studies done about 10 years ago suggested a dose-dependent effect of antenatal steroids on several neonatal outcomes, including intracranial hemorrhage and death, but neither study reported long-term follow-up data, as the current study does.

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