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(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.



The escape of blood from the vascular system.


(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
Aggravation of DIC accompanied by tumor lysis occurred after the start of treatment and intracranial hemorrhage developed in the right occipital lobe on day 1.
In these studies, time on MV, complications including pneumothorax, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, intracranial hemorrhage and BPD and the mortality rate were investigated generally (24-26).
The insertion and use of the monitoring of ICP include risks and amongst them are infection and intracranial hemorrhage.
Bicycle helmets were shown to significantly reduce the rates of both skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhage.
Ironically, some might wonder whether, had the request been made relative to, not a determination of the amount of damages which the jury might award, but as to whether or not the defendant had been liable for medical malpractice and/or negligence which was in violation of its duty to the deceased patient, whose death might not have occurred, but for the actions of the defendant, which were by omission and/or commission the direct and proximate cause of her intracranial hemorrhage and death.
We are presenting Suttonella indologenes (ancient name: Kingella indologenes) endocarditis complicated with splenic infarction and lethal intracranial hemorrhage in a patient with aortic valve replacement.
Despite advances in care, the morbidity and the mortality associated with intracranial hemorrhage remain high (Hanley, 2003).
Coleman suffered an intracranial hemorrhage and breathed his last on May 28, and Hopper was diagnosed with prostate cancer last year which ultimately took his life on May 29.
Shortly after the patient was discharged, she was rushed by ambulance to another hospital where she died from what was described as a "massive intracranial hemorrhage.
In this issue of the Southern Medical Journal, a review of two infants with intracranial hemorrhage due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is presented.
In Cleveland, (10) 50% of patients treated had at least i major protocol violation, and the NNH for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 6.

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