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(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.



The escape of blood from the vascular system.


(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
The researchers showed improved outcomes in patients when afforded early reperfusion as evidenced by higher reperfusion rates and a lower rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage when compared with the placebo group.
If magnesium sulfate is shown to reduce the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral palsy, subsequent studies would be needed to establish the optimal dosage.
The FDA statement points out that the results for major GI bleeding in this study are different from a previous FDA analysis of about 10,600 new users of dabigatran and warfarin, reported in 2012, which found that GI and intracranial hemorrhage rates were lower among patients treated with dabigatran, compared with those on warfarin.
The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in dementia patients admitted to the Jon Michael Moore Trauma Center was approximately:
2008) studied 54 warfarin anticoagulated individuals with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, primarily due to subdural hematomas.
PLAVIX is contraindicated in patients with active pathologic bleeding such as peptic ulcer or intracranial hemorrhage.
Consider subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhage, arteriovenous malformation, arterial dissection, or sinus thrombosis.
ITP is a disorder characterized by low platelet counts leaving patients at risk of episodes of spontaneous bruising, mucosal bleeding, and in severe cases intracranial hemorrhage.
Scientific sessions will cover a wide range of topics such as genetic and metabolic profiling for predicting heart disease, molecular targeting of cardiac and vascular therapies, stem cell therapies for myocardial repair, minimally invasive valve replacement, bio-absorbable implantable devices, intracranial hemorrhage and the latest migraine treatments.
An exception is a patient older than 75 years, who should not receive a IIb/IIIa inhibitor along with a thrombolytic drug because of the increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage.
Treatment with t-PA should only be initiated within three hours of the onset of stroke symptoms and after exclusion of intracranial hemorrhage.
In animal studies, desmoteplase showed no neurotoxicity, and it did not activate [beta]-amyloid, a process linked to an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage.

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