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1. Education
a. written exercises, oral questions, or practical tasks, set to test a candidate's knowledge and skill
b. (as modifier): an examination paper
2. Med
a. physical inspection of a patient or parts of his body, in order to verify health or diagnose disease
b. laboratory study of secretory or excretory products, tissue samples, etc., esp in order to diagnose disease
3. Law the formal interrogation of a person on oath, esp of an accused or a witness



(Russian, ekzamen), in the USSR, a comprehensive survey of the knowledge of a student or of a person graduating from or entering an educational institution. Unlike tests (zachety), examinations—both oral and written—are always graded.

After the October Revolution of 1917 the system of examinations that existed in Russia was abolished. The following examinations were made compulsory in the 1930’s: annual promotion examinations in general-education schools, beginning in fourth grade; admission, or entrance, examinations for higher and specialized secondary educational institutions; and semester final and state graduation examinations in higher and specialized secondary educational institutions.

In 1944 graduation examinations were instituted for students of incomplete secondary and secondary schools. According to the Statute on the Secondary General-Education School of 1970, the procedure for administering examinations in secondary general-education schools is determined by the ministries of education (or public education) of the Union republics. Compulsory graduation examinations are given in the eighth and 10th (or 11th) grades. Students who pass them receive a certificate of completion of an eight-year school or a certificate of secondary education. Promotion examinations may be instituted for the fourth through seventh grades and the ninth (or 10th) grade by the ministry of education (or public education) of a Union republic. There may be no more than three such examinations per grade. The certificate of completion of an eight-year school and the certificate of secondary education may also be received through the system of extramural education.

In higher and specialized secondary educational institutions, the time and procedure for administering competitive entrance examinations, semester finals, and state graduation examinations are determined by the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education of the USSR according to the type of school. Students who have passed all tests are permitted to take the semester final examinations, and students who have passed all the semester finals may take the graduation examinations.

At many institutions of higher learning and at many technicums, defense of a diploma project or diploma thesis replaces state examinations in special disciplines. Vocational-technical schools and vocational courses give qualifying examinations for certain ratings, or ranks, in various lines of work. In addition to qualifying examinations, secondary vocational-technical schools also give graduation examinations in general-education subjects.


Narodnoe obrazovanie v SSSR: Obshcheobrazovatel’naia shkola: Sb.dokumentov 1917–1973. Moscow, 1974. Pages 161–64, 170–72, 228–35,420–36.


What does it mean when you dream about an examination?

Dreaming about taking a test could indicate that the dreamer has a fear of failure. Alternatively, such a dream could indicate that a specific issue of great importance to the dreamer reminds them of being in school. “Passing the test” can also be a metaphor for successfully concluding any number of different activities.

References in periodicals archive ?
There were no statistically significant differences in the oral potentially malignant lesions detected in cigarette or dual addiction smokers by the VEL-scope[R] Vx when compared to visual and tactile intraoral examination.
Intraoral examination revealed mild gingivitis and moderate rate of caries with heavily stained teeth due to heavy smoking.
Intraoral examination revealed tenderness and elongated styloid process in the left tonsillar fossa only.
On intraoral examination, there were multiple carious teeth.
In intraoral examination an exophytic lesion was observed in the left lateral border of the tongue (Figure-2).
One month postoperatively, intraoral examination revealed that the maxillary surgical site healed satisfactorily [Figure 8].
Intraoral examination revealed a swelling localized in the left side of the floor of the mouth in relation to premolars, firm to hard on palpation and not adherent to deeper structure (Fig.
Intraoral examination revealed normal openings of both Stensen ducts.
Caption: Figure 2: Intraoral examination reveals only two conical shaped teeth in upper anterior region
The patient complaints were corroborated with the intraoral examination as well as and remedial action was provided.
Intraoral examination revealed missing 15, Root canal treated 13,14,16,17, and a solitary well-defined swelling on right side of the hard palate measuring approximately 2x1cm extending anterio-posteriorly from mesial half of 16 to maxillary tuberosity, medio-laterally extending from mid palatine raphae to attached gingiva of 16,17.
Intraoral examination revealed a hard, 3-cm mass with normal mucosa originating from the right posterolateral oropharyngeal wall behind the right tonsillar fossa (figure 1).

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