in antlion (Macroleon quinquemaculatus) larvae in the field.
The trait-mediated indirect effects of parasites on hosts are considered both in the growth and in the intraspecific competition
. We assume different intrinsic growth rates for susceptible, [b.sub.S], and infected, [b.sub.I], individuals.
Beyond its obviously detrimental effect upon our power to detect population-level trends, this variation is interesting because it indicates that even with very low intraspecific competition
for resources, individual foxes still had large differences in their resource utilization as indicated by the habitat composition of their home ranges.
(2011) to evaluate the utility of browse indices for detecting short-term changes in intraspecific competition
following intended management actions.
purpuratus is a dominant competitor, a community-structuring species, and a bioengineer that forms extensive banks in the rocky intertidal zone (Guinez and Castilla, 1999; Prado and Castilla, 2006) with multi-stratified matrices of individuals where intense intraspecific competition
occurs (Guinez and Castilla, 1999; Guinez et al., 2005).
[a.sub.21] > 0 and [a.sub.22] > 0 denote biomass conversion rate of immature prey population captured by predator population and intraspecific competition
rate of predator population, respectively.
Dynamics of two Montana grasshopper populations: relationships among weather, food abundance and intraspecific competition
. Oecologia 101: 383-396.
Both areas are mainly shallow with a sandy/muddy bottom and a large number of microhabitats, such as islands, rocky coasts and mangroves, which increase biological diversity and can therefore minimize the individual costs of living in large groups, such as intraspecific competition
IAC Runner-886 and hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) growth, when submitted to inter- and intraspecific competition
. The treatments consisted of two peanut plants per pot, two hairy beggarticks per pot and one plant of each species per pot.
Previous studies also suggest that high elongate hemlock scale densities may increase scale mortality due to intraspecific competition
(Mc Clure 1979, 1980, 1981).
High levels on intraspecific competition
2005), and even fewer, have considered the analysis of these factors together with intraspecific competition
and in field conditions (Mira and Bernays 2002).