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1. Music
a. an instrumental passage preceding the entry of a soloist, choir, etc.
b. an opening passage in a movement or composition that precedes the main material
2. Logic (qualified by the name of an operation) a syntactic rule specifying the conditions under which a formula or statement containing the specified operator may be derived from others



(in music), a section which precedes the main theme of a work or one of its parts and which prepares the way for the appearance of that theme. This preparation consists in anticipating the character and intonations of the theme or in setting off the theme by contrast. An introduction may be either very brief or very lengthy; it may be composed of passages or chords (the finale of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 3), or it may consist of a striking musical theme which is subsequently developed in the music (the first part of P. I. Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 4). Sometimes the introduction becomes an independent piece—for example, in instrumental music and especially in large-scale vocal-instrumental and stage works, where it constitutes a kind of overture (P. I. Tchaikovsky’s opera Eugene Onegin and Wagner’s opera Lohengrin).



(1) A short opening to the first movement or the finale of cyclic instrumental works (symphonies, divertimenti, string quartets) or to one-part instrumental compositions.

(2) A brief overture in opera or ballet; also an orchestral opening to a separate act of an opera.

(3) A vocal ensemble or choral scene in opera immediately after the overture and serving as an opening to the first act of the opera, for example, in M. I. Glinka’s Ivan Susanin and Ruslan and Ludmilla.



Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (the USSR or the Soviet Union) is the first socialist all-people’s state in history, expressing the will and interests of the working class, peasantry, and intelligentsia and of all the nations (natsii, nations in the historical sense) and nationalities of the country.

The USSR borders on 12 countries: Norway, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Rumania in the west and Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, the People’s Republic of China, the Mongolian People’s Republic, and the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea in the south. The total length of the state’s borders is more than 60,000 km (1½ times the length of the equator). The USSR also borders on 12 seas, belonging to the basins of three oceans—the Arctic, Atlantic, and Pacific oceans.

The USSR is the largest country in area, occupying nearly one-sixth of the world’s inhabited area, or 22,402,200 sq km. In population, with a total of 266.6 million people (as of Jan. 1, 1981), it ranks third, after China and India. The capital is the city of Moscow. The Soviet Union is a multinational state, uniting 15 Union republics (see Table 1, page 2).

The USSR lies in Asia and Europe; the Asiatic part of the USSR occupies about 75 percent of the total land area, and the European part, about 25 percent. The northernmost point in the continental USSR is Cheliuskin Cape (77°43′ N lat.); the northernmost point of the entire USSR is Fligel’ Cape on Rudolf Island (81°49′ N lat.). The southernmost point is the aul (mountain village) of Chil’dukhter, near the city of Kushka (35°08′ N lat.). The total extent of the country from north to south is about 5,000 km. From east to west, the total extent, from the Baltic Spit of the Gulf of Gdańsk (19°38’ E long.) to the Dezhnev Cape (169°40′ W long.), is nearly twice as great. The easternmost point is the island of Ratmanov in the Bering Strait (169°02′ W long.).

The USSR spans 11 time zones.

References in classic literature ?
The pianoforte at which Marianne, wrapped up in her own music and her own thoughts, had by this time forgotten that any body was in the room besides herself, was luckily so near them that Miss Dashwood now judged she might safely, under the shelter of its noise, introduce the interesting subject, without any risk of being heard at the card-table.
I am willing to amuse you, if I can, sir--quite willing; but I cannot introduce a topic, because how do I know what will interest you?
I did not call her unfeeling long; for I perceived she was in purgatory throughout the day, and wearying to find an opportunity of getting by herself, or paying a visit to Heathcliff, who had been locked up by the master: as I discovered, on endeavouring to introduce to him a private mess of victuals.
Well knowing this (the letter proceeded to say), he had nevertheless persisted in forcing himself upon her as a species of family connection: and she had weakly sanctioned the intrusion, solely from the dread that he would otherwise introduce himself to Mr.
It was a very muddy boot, and may introduce the odd circumstance connected with Mr.
Introduce him to me, and I'll cultivate his acquaintance.
In this plight, and with a strong consciousness of it, I waited to introduce myself to, and make my first impression on, my formidable aunt.
Let me introduce the topic, Handel, by mentioning that in London it is not the custom to put the knife in the mouth - for fear of accidents - and that while the fork is reserved for that use, it is not put further in than necessary.
There's one feature of the place I might introduce you to if you care for a stroll," he said presently.
The painter must introduce no ornament inconsistent with the climate or country of his landscape; he must not plant cypress trees upon Inch-Merrin, or Scottish firs among the ruins of Persepolis; and the author lies under a corresponding restraint.
THE last paper having concluded the observations which were meant to introduce a candid survey of the plan of government reported by the convention, we now proceed to the execution of that part of our undertaking.
Long does not come back till the day before; so it will be impossible for her to introduce him, for she will not know him herself.