Introjection

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introjection

[′in·trə′jek·shən]
(psychology)
The symbolic absorption into and toward oneself of concepts and feelings generated toward another person or object; motivates irrational behavior toward oneself.

Introjection

 

in theory of knowledge, the concept, introduced by the Austrian philosopher R. Avenarius, of the inadmissibility—from his point of view—of the insertion of perceived images into the consciousness of the individual. According to Avenarius, this follows from the inadmissibility of dividing the ideal and the real in general; this view is the result of his basing his philosophy on the concept of experience, dissolving within it the contrast between the spiritual and the material and thus attempting to refute materialism entirely. Criticism of these concepts of experience and introjection is provided by V. I. Lenin in his Materialism and Empiriocriticism (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 18).

In psychology introjection is the individual’s inclusion of other persons’ views, motivations, and purposes in his inner world. It is a basis for identification. Projection is the opposite of introjection. The concept of introjection was introduced by the Hungarian psychoanalyst S. Ferenczi into depth psychology, where it is viewed as a psychological mechanism that plays an important role in the formation of the superego, conscience, and other personality phenomena.

References in periodicals archive ?
A negative correlation was found between enjoyment and amotivation, introjected regulation and external regulation.
Task orientation had positive significant correlations (p < .05) with intrinsic (r = .56), integrated (r = .29), identified (r = .49), and introjected (r = .35) regulation (see Table 3).
The authors opted for a four-factorial structure (external, introjected, identified, and intrinsic) instead of a two-factor solution (internal and external) as a mean to account for the psychological meaningfulness of these categories.
Significant differences were also observed in the goal profiles related to all types of motivation: intrinsic motivation [[F.sub.(3,508) = 32.93, p <001, [[eta].sup.2] = .16], identified regulation [[F.sub.(3,508)] = 24.37, p <001, [[eta].sup.2] = .13], introjected regulation [[F.sub.(3,508)] = 27.11 p <001, [[eta].sup.2] = .14], extrinsic regulation [[F.sub.(3,508)] = 11.95, p <.001, [[eta].sup.2] = .07], and amotivation [[F.sub.(3,508)] = 4.83, p <01, [[eta].sup.2] = .03].
This dimension includes two types of regulation: the social and material extrinsic regulation; (3) Identified regulation, which refers to the performance of an activity because it identifies with its value or meaning, so that this form of internalization is volatile; (4) Introjected regulation refers to the regulation of behavior through the internal pressure of forces such as ego-involvement, shame and guilt.
In terms of motivational regulations for physical education classes, the highest score observed was for identified regulation, followed by intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, and external regulation, with the lowest result recorded for demotivation.
Thus, the highest correlation values were observed between external and introjected regulation (r= .50, p < .01) and identified regulation and intrinsic motivation (r = .50, p < .01).
The finding that identified religiosity (not introjected religiosity) is a predictor of moral reasoning and moral judgments suggests that autonomous internalization plays a large role.
The following formula, informed by Vallerand and colleagues (1997) and Guay and colleagues (2003), was used to calculate the SDI using the seven Academic Motivation Scale subscales: [2*((IM knowledge + IM accomplishment + IM stimulation/3)) + identified regulation ((external regulation + introjected regulation/2) + 2*amotivation)].
ii) external, introjected and amotivation will negatively predict dispositional flow and positively predict SPA.
This is congruent with Freud's comments that normal narcissism only becomes abnormally pathological when it is introjected.
The least internalized of these is introjected motivation, or introjection, a motivational state in which behavior is externally regulated by compulsion, avoidance of guilt, or anxiety, and a sense that one "should" or "ought to" complete a behavior (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Koestner & Losier, 2002; Ntoumanis, 2002; Wang & Biddle, 2001).