intuitionism

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intuitionism

This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Intuitionism

 

the idealist movement in philosophy that considers intuition to be the sole reliable means of cognition. Although the intuitionist tendency is characteristic of many philosophers and philosophical trends of the past, intuitionism as a definite movement arose at the turn of the century. It is, in particular, a type of reaction to the spread of a rationalistic way of thought, which is based on the mechanistic and positivistic conception of scientific knowledge and on the limitation of experience exclusively to the sphere of sense perception. As a variety of irrationalism, intuitionism is opposed to the philosophy of dialectical materialism. Two forms of intuitionism can be distinguished. For the first, anti-intellectual form, the opposition of intuition and intellect is characteristic, as in H. Bergson (France) and the philosophy of life as a whole. The second form tries to unite intuition and intellect, as in the Russian philosophers N. O. Losskii, S. L. Frank, and E. N. Trubetskoi; the French neo-Thomists E. Gilson and J. Maritain; and, in part, E. Husserl and the phenomenological school—M. Scheler, N. Hartmann (Germany), and other philosophers.

Bergson contrasts intuition to discursive, logical thinking or logical knowledge. He interprets intuition as the immediate merging of subject and object, the overcoming of the opposition between them. In the biological versions of the philosophy of life (for example, in the German philosoher L. Klages) intuition verges on instinct, giving direct knowledge of an object without the aid of consciousness.

Representatives of the second tendency of intuitionism strive to go beyond the bounds of immediate sense experience and propose that philosophy base itself on a special kind of experience—mental (particularly “religious”) experience. Dialectical materialism, while criticizing the exaggerated role that intuitionism assigns to intuition in cognition, looks upon intuition as an organic moment in the cognitive process, acting in unison with discursive thinking.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although some intuitionists will insist that the proper methodology is to work from the abstract and universal toward the particularity of moral situations, there is nothing mistaken in having another starting point that is based in the particular that works toward the abstract and universal.
Moral foundations theory (MFT; Graham, Haidt, & Nosek, 2009) flows out of the social intuitionist model of morality proposed by Haidt (2001) and depicted in Figure 1.
Intuitionist picture of joke-getting experience as gut-level generic effects of funniness with the ensuing attempt to explain it by confabulating reasons lacks plausibility, and this goes as well for the traditional rationalism model.
Similarly but importantly distinct, in intuitionist logic: "AAB" is defined as proven when A is proven and B is proven; "AvB" is defined as proven when A is proven or B is proven; "[logical not]A" is defined as proven when there exists a proof that there is no proof of A; and "A [right arrow] B" is defined as proven when there exists a construction that, provided any proof of A, may be applied to provide a proof of B (Non-classical, 100).
It was vigorously opposed by well-known mathematicians such as Leopold Kronecker, who, like Brouwer, was an Intuitionist (see Section 1.1, Logic).
I'm currently reading and enjoying Whitehead's The Intuitionist and looking forward to soon finding his collection of essays about New York City in my mailbox.
encompasses two related forms of intuitionist analysis: first, gestalt
Section 2 provides a brief overview of Brower's intuitionist mathematics relevant to the current discussion.
He is also the author of The Intuitionist (1999), Sag Harbor (*** SELECTION July/Aug 2009), and Zone One (***1/2 Jan/Feb 2012).
The social intuitionist model was advanced by the Renaissance philosopher David Hume, who argued that people have strong "gut" feelings about what is right and wrong, and that they struggle, even if subconsciously, to construct post hoc justifications for those gut feelings.