Between 300 and 500[degrees]C, MEL decomposed and the development of intumescence
occurred at the same time.
gouazoubira is an elongated and cylindroidal mass, dorsoventrally flattened, with two dilatations called the cervical and lumbar intumescences
, like those of other animals (Figures 1 and 2).
Carbonization Mechanisms Resulting from Intumescence
Association with the AMMONIUM Polyphosphate-Pentaerythritol Fire Retardant System.
Jones, "Nanocomposites: Radiative Gasification and Vinyl Polymer Flammability," in Fire Retardancy of Polymers: The Use of Intumescence
Non Halogen * Alumina trihydrate * Magnesium hydroxide * Zinc borate * Phosphorus * Intumescence
is usually referred to as the formation of an expanded superficial char layer acting as a physical barrier to reduce heat and mass (fuel and oxygen) transfer between the gas and the condensed phases (2).
Since several different types of mechanisms are employed, including condensed-phase reactions and intumescence
, the amounts of gases evolved are significantly lower than reaction mechanisms employing gas-phase reaction such as halogen/antimony flame retardants.
Wilkie, "Influence of High Energy Radiation on the Thermal Stability of Polyamide-6," in Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials, the Use of Intumescence
combined with the melting fiberglass go from an amorphous substance to a vitreous refractory silica that reportedly can withstand temperatures up to approximately 4000[degrees]F, and the metallized polyester film on the bubble wrap as well as the polyethylene of the bubble wrap start softening and form a thin film made up of both components.
Conversely, an unfilled (v = 0), non-charring ([mu] = 0) polymer with or without a nonconducting filler would have [theta] [approximately equal to] 1, while a charring polymer would have [theta] < 1, and those exhibiting intumescence
(volumetric expansion of a char layer) would have [theta] [much less than] 1.
Once again, after initial excitement, interest in intumescence
was less than anticipated.