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inflammation of the membrane lining a sinus, esp a nasal sinus



an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses in man and animals. In humans, acute sinusitis usually arises as a complication of influenza, acute respiratory diseases, or other infectious diseases; chronic sinusitis develops from acute sinusitis that has not been completely cured.

The general symptoms of acute sinusitis include elevated body temperature, headache, abundant nasal discharge, and difficulty in breathing through the nose, most often on one side. With chronic sinusitis, there is usually no increase in body temperature and the other symptoms are less pronounced. Localization of the process determines the symptoms. Sinusitis may be catarrhal or purulent, depending on the type of inflammation. With chronic sinusitis, proliferations of the mucosa (polyps) often form in the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity.

Several different forms of sinusitis are distinguished, depending on which sinus is affected. The most common form is maxillary sinusitis, which is an inflammation of the maxillary sinus. With frontal sinusitis, the frontal sinus becomes inflamed; with ethmoid sinusitis, the ethmoidal labyrinth; and with sphenoid sinusitis, the sphenoidal sinus. Sometimes the inflammatory process spreads to all the paranasal sinuses on one or both sides (pansinusitis). Treatment includes the use of medicinal agents, the administration of heat (hot-water bag, compress), and physical therapy. Sometimes surgical treatment is indicated. Prophylaxis includes the timely treatment of the cause of the disease. [23–1294–]


Inflammation of a paranasal sinus.
References in periodicals archive ?
In light of these findings, the patient was placed on empiric piperacillin/tazobactam and amphotericin B lipid complex to cover bacterial skull base osteomyelitis and invasive fungal sinusitis. He was then taken to the operating room for image-guided bilateral endoscopic sphenoidotomy with biopsy.
(30) At the other end of the spectrum is acute invasive fungal sinusitis, which is usually caused by Mucor or Aspergillus spp.
(37) This can be problematic because amphotericin B is often the first-line pharmacologic therapy for suspected invasive fungal sinusitis. Miconazole is the antifungal of choice for P boydii, (38) and several authors have reported successful treatment with ketoconazole.
A new classification and diagnostic criteria for invasive fungal sinusitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;123:1181-8.
DeShazo et al classified invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS) as one of three types: acute fulminant, chronic, and granulomatous.
Invasive fungal sinusitis was lumped together with allergic fungal sinusitis as recently as the early 1980s.
We found seven cases of invasive fungal sinusitis that developed in immunocompromised patients.
In 1980, McGill et al described four patients (three with acute leukemia and one with aplastic anemia) who had an aggressive form of paranasal aspergillosis, which they termed fulminant, invasive fungal sinusitis. [7] Since then, other authors--including Berkow et al, [8] Romett and Newman, [9] Colman, [10] and Choi et al[11]--have reported on the aggressive and lethal nature of invasive fungal sinusitis (table 3).
Many immunosuppressed patients become febrile at some point during their illness, and it is important to consider invasive fungal sinusitis when evaluating them.

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