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symbol for the element titaniumtitanium
[from Titan], metallic chemical element; symbol Ti; at. no. 22; at. wt. 47.867; m.p. 1,675°C;; b.p. 3,260°C;; sp. gr. 4.54 at 20°C;; valence +2, +3, or +4.
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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. a woody palmlike agave plant, Cordyline terminalis, of the East Indies, having white, mauve, or reddish flowers. The sword-shaped leaves are used for garments, fodder, thatch, etc., and the root for food and liquor
2. a similar and related plant, Cordyline australis, of New Zealand
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, TX, www.ti.com) A leading semiconductor manufacturer founded in 1930 as Geophysical Service, an independent contractor specializing in petroleum exploration using sound waves (reflection seismograph method). In 1938, it spun off Geophysical Services, Inc. a Delaware subsidiary to do explorations for others. The parent company was later renamed Coronado Corporation, which ultimately dissolved in 1945.

In 1941, GSI was purchased by three employees and one of the original founders. The next day, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, and the company found itself making equipment that would find enemy submarines, not just oil.

In 1951, GSI's name was changed to Texas Instruments, and soon after began making transistors via a licensing arrangement with Western Electric. In 1954, TI pioneered the first commercial production of transistors made from silicon, and in that same year, introduced the first pocket-sized transistor radio.

In 1958, TI's Jack Kilby demonstrated the first integrated circuit (IC), which incorporated several transistors on a single chip. Three years later, it demonstrated a working computer using ICs that were six cubic inches in size and weighed only 10 ounces. TI produced a complete computer on a chip (microcontroller) in 1971.

In the early 1980s, TI made a large number of low-priced 99/4a home computers. It later introduced desktop PCs, but then discontinued them. A line of notebook PCs was offered for several years, but this mobile computing part of the business was sold to the Acer Group in 1997.

As the first to commercialize the silicon transistor, pocket radio, integrated circuit, handheld calculator, single-chip computer and the LISP chip, TI has a long history of contributions to the electronics and computer industry.

First Transistor
In 1954, TI pioneered the commercialization of the silicon transistor. (Image courtesy of Texas Instruments, Inc.)

First Integrated Circuit
In 1958, TI built the first integrated circuit on a bar of germanium. It contained two transistors. This was the beginning of today's commonplace multi-million transistor chip. (Image courtesy of Texas Instruments, Inc.)

The First Handheld Calculator
In 1967, TI introduced this handheld calculator. People were as excited to use this machine as they were when portable computers came on the scene a decade and a half later. (Image courtesy of Texas Instruments, Inc.)

Inside the Plant
These pictures were taken inside TI's semiconductor fabrication plants. All workers don "bunny suits" which keep them from contaminating the delicate chip-making process. (Images courtesy of Texas Instruments, Inc.)

Inside the Plant
These pictures were taken inside TI's semiconductor fabrication plants. All workers don "bunny suits" which keep them from contaminating the delicate chip-making process. (Images courtesy of Texas Instruments, Inc.)
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References in periodicals archive ?
The first step of the application was to calibrate the commercial software OpenTrack[R] [43] in order to provide a mathematical model which allows simulation of all phases of the metro service (i.e., travel, dwell, and inversion times) and also exploration of different operational configurations without the need to apply them physically (i.e., on the real line).
Travel, dwell, and inversion times were obtained by implementing a deterministic simulation of the metro service (see Table 1).
Here long Inversion Time (TI) is used in FLAIR to nullify the signal from any particular tissue.
The inversion time is selected to null the signal from normal myocardium, in order to maximize the contrast between the normal myocardium and scar.
Employing a lower resolution steady-state free-precession (SSFP) cine technique, incorporating an iteratively adjusted inversion time. Optimization of the inversion time is critical for DE-MRI imaging as an inappropriately short inversion time results in nulling of abnormal tissue and a long inversion time results in loss of contrast between normal and abnormal myocardium.
All of the above sequences rely on the selection of an optimal inversion time. In contrast, the phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) sequence eliminates the need for selecting the optimal inversion time.
In a normal person, the null point of blood typically occurs earlier than myocardium (Figure 1), but in amyloidosis, due to diffuse infiltration and Gad uptake, the myocardium appears the darkest at an inversion time earlier than that of the blood pool (Figure 13).
[T.sub.1] mapping for calculation of regional left ventricular myocardial [T.sub.1] relaxation times was accomplished using a gradient-echo, cardiac-gated Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery sequence (MoLLI) [26] whereby 14-20 images were acquired at unique inversion times (dependent on heart rate, ranging from approximately 0.20 to 3.00 s) with the [TR.sub.inversion] > 3 x [T.sub.1] of myocardium ([TR.sub.inversion] > 4.50 s).
The 14-20 images at unique inversion times were exported offline and combined to generate [T.sub.1] maps using commercially available software ([CVI.sup.4.2[R]], Circle Cardiovascular Imaging, Calgary, Canada) using three-parameter nonlinear curve fitting as previously described [15].