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1. Economics the amount by which the stock of capital (plant, machinery, materials, etc.) in an enterprise or economy changes
2. Biology the outer layer or covering of an organ, part, or organism



the long-term placement of capital in industry, agriculture, transport, or other sectors of the domestic or a foreign economy for the purpose of deriving profits. In bourgeois economics, two kinds of investments are distinguished: financial investments and real investments.

A financial investment is the exchange of capital for stocks, bonds, and other securities issued by corporations or the state. A real investment is the placement of capital into productive fixed capital (buildings, installations, equipment), housing construction, and goods and material supplies in the country itself and abroad. Investments are realized by private corporations and the state. Private investments are directed into sectors of the national economy where the greatest profit can be derived (primarily, industry); state investments are directed into less profitable branches, for example, into the infrastructure (the underlying economic sectors of society, such as education, communications, and transport). Private investments are financed out of internal resources (depreciation deductions and retained profits) and out of other sources enlisted for this purpose: long-term credit and the issuance of securities. The financial sources of state investments are taxes, domestic and foreign loans, the income of state enterprises, and the issue of new money.

The financial operations involving investments are realized through banks (commercial and investment banks) and other financial agencies: savings banks, insurance companies, investment trusts, pension funds, and the like, which contribute to the accumulation of huge funds that belong to the population and that are used in the interests of the financial oligarchy.

The bourgeois economic experts foresee the limits of investments not in capitalist production relations but in technical production conditions and psychological factors. Although it is true that investments create income and expand markets, the antagonistic class relations of capitalist society ultimately restrict growth. The operation of the universal law of capital accumulation leads to a situation in which, because the investments are followed by a rise in the organic structure of capital, the wealth of the capitalists is growing whereas the conditions of life of the working class are deteriorating.


References in periodicals archive ?
But many hedge funds invest in stocks and bonds, and not art hedge fund managers try to manage risk.
Because employees control the investment decisions for this new plan, as well as their 401(k)s, and because they can invest their 401(k) contributions in company stock for the first time, the company held information sessions to explain the plan's investment options and the risks involved.
The 13-member Advisory Council on Social Security, which has advised every president since Franklin Roosevelt, considered three options for Social Security reforms: Maintain the current benefit structure, increasing payroll taxes as necessary to pay retirees; raise payroll taxes by two percentage points and let everyone invest the extra money in IRAs; or establish a two-tiered system that allows even more private investment.
Here's how it works: Suppose a client decides to put $400 a month into a mutual fund that invests in the stocks of large companies.
Kozlen said there are different reasons to invest in stocks and bonds.
They're thinking about starting a nonprofit organization to help others learn to invest, or establishing an assisted living facility.
Louis International Airport, invests about 10% of his total $54,000-a-year salary.
You will have to investigate brokerage companies as well as publicly traded companies you'll invest in.