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in criminal procedure, the elucidation of those circumstances of a criminal case necessary for arriving at the correct decision. Soviet law distinguishes between preliminary and judicial investigation.

Preliminary investigation, a basic form of inquiry, is an important stage in a criminal case. Begun after the initiation of the criminal case, it includes investigatory actions for the purpose of collecting and verifying evidence, presentation of the charges, the selection of a measure of restraint, actions to protect the legal interests of the accused, the victim, the plaintiff, and other participants in the trial, and actions to remove the causes and conditions contributing to the crime. The preliminary investigation comes to an end, within a period established by law, with the drawing up of a bill of indictment or a decree on termination of the case (see also).

Judicial investigation is a stage in the trial, during which a court of the first instance, in formal judicial session, makes a direct investigation of the evidence; that is, it verifies the evidence gathered in the preliminary investigation and inquiry and gathers and verifies additional evidence. Judicial investigation is autonomous; it is a multifaceted and objective analysis—with direct, open, and oral proceedings and equal procedural rights for all participants in the trial—of all the case’s circumstances significant for arriving at a just and legal decision.


A process conducted for the purpose of accident prevention which includes the gathering and analysis of information, the drawing of conclusions, including the determination of causes and, when appropriate, the making of safety recommendations (ICAO).
References in periodicals archive ?
The FDA has a long history of supporting patient access to investigational treatments and we hope the information released today will help health care professionals, patients, and industry to more easily navigate the expanded access process and help patients who qualify to gain access to potentially life-saving investigational treatments.
Investigational medicines remain in development and are usually limited in supply.
The second regulation instructs manufacturers on the process to recoup costs associated with providing an investigational agent.
Thirdly, the FDA believes that many of the issues presented by investigational drugs in Phase 1 trials are different to larger Phase 2 or 3 trials.
Say an investigational drug dramatically reduced viral load but had to be taken 5 times a day on an empty stomach, caused severe nausea, and put the patient at increased risk for liver cancer?
Other researchers, however, believe that without a placebo control, it is harder to know whether an investigational medication is better than existing drugs.
The new rule "Expanded Access to Investigational Drugs for Treatment Use" makes investigational drugs more widely available to patients by spelling out procedures and standards.
The FDA would allow an investigational drug to be used to treat an individual patient if a licensed physician determines that the probable risk to the patient from the investigational drug is not greater than the probable risk from the patient's disease or condition, and the FDA determines that the patient cannot otherwise obtain the drug (eg the patient cannot participate in a clinical trial of the investigational drug).
Many payers might be more receptive to funding clinical trials if the diffusion of investigational therapies could be restricted until adequate outcomes data could be collected.
Within the past year, numerous states have introduced bills that would mandate insurance coverage for investigational cancer therapies - in particular high-dose chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant for breast cancer.

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