In this ion exchanger
, ion exchange functional groups, such as sulfo groups for cation exchanger or quaternary ammonium groups for anion exchanger, are located not only on the surface but in the entire polymer as shown in Fig.
The product contained more deposit compared to that would be expected from the anion exchanger's functional groups content, since CuO formed not only from the Cu[Cl.sub.4.sup.2-] ions bound with the ion exchanger
but also from the free Cu[Cl.sub.4.sup.2-] ions derived from the water phase remaining in the polymer beads after vacuum filtration.
These experiments were carried out to validate the effect of contact time (0-3 hr), pH (2-11), temperature (25-80[degrees]C), mixing speed (0-400 rpm), initial concentration of the synthesis solution (5-1000 ppm), and the amount of ion exchanger
(0.1-5 g) on the ion exchange process using the most proper synthetized ion exchanger
There are several factors that influence the sorption capacity of the ion exchangers
used in this study, such as total capacity, concentration and type of ions to be sorbed, site accessibility, pH variation, temperature and rate of agitation (Helfferrich, 1962).
MARHOL, M.; Ion exchangers
in analytical chemistry: their properties and use in inorganic chemistry.
The porous monolith ion exchanger
was prepared by polymerization of water-in-oil emulsions without stirring as described in Reference 7.
The thermodynamic parameters entropy (S) enthalpy (H) and free energy (G) changes are computed which reveal that the chromium removal from tannery wastes by ion exchangers
is an endothermic physical sorption and entropically driven process.
The effect of these parameters has been investigated in several studies due to the importance of biotite's mineral stability in the applications of biotite as an ion exchanger
belong to a class of insoluble salts containing acids or bases.
Additionally, there are different natural and synthetic products that present ion-exchange properties, where the organic resins are by far the most important ion exchangers
. Owing to their exceptional ion exchange properties, numerous commercially available or easy-to-make water-soluble polymers can be advantageously used to remove ions from aqueous medium.