Proteins were partially solubilized in these solutions to measure the existence of ionic bonds
(difference between SB and SA), hydrogen bonds (difference between SC and SB) and hydrophobic interactions (difference between SD and SC).
The network structure in the surimi gel system is mainly maintained through the interactions among and within protein molecules, such as chemical bonds, ionic bonds
, hydrogen bond, hydrophobic interaction, and covalent bonding  (Table 2).
In ionic bonds
, donor atoms such as sodium tend to lose electrons easily while acceptor atoms such as chlorine tend to acquire additional electrons.
The HS[O.sub.4.sup.-] formed an ionic bond
with the PEDOT, even that the nonconductive anions of some [PSS.sup.-] were substituted by the conductive anions of HS[O.sub.4.sup.-] .
In the early 1970s, Holliday (1, 2) defined an ionic polymer as a polymer, either organic or inorganic, that contains both covalent and ionic bonds
in its chain or network structure.
The technology and characteristics of this ionic bond
have been detailed in the literature on commercial ionomers.
The group has also been extending its work to simple molecules and clusters--for example, the metallic bond between two lithium atoms, a typical ionic bond
(lithium hydride) and a covalent bond (water).
are simple +/- interactions between oppositely charged residues such as lysine, arginine or histidine (all+) with glutamate or aspartate (both-) and require no further explanation.
It was due to the increasing of Ni2+ in NinMg3-nAl-LDHs changed the M-O bond in the laminate from covalent to ionic gradually, indicating the covalent bonds decreased in the isomorphous substitution process, while the ionic bonds
It is like when my younger brother asks me to help him with his homework, and he is doing the exact lessons I had done when I was his age, but I cannot seem to remember the difference between covalent and ionic bonds
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