Tsuchiya and Moriya, 1975  have also observed a mixed electronic and ionic conduction
in copper phosphate glasses existing in sites with different bending forces.
In the low frequency range the increase in [epsilon]' with the decrease in frequency is characteristic of electrical conduction, either by impurity electron and hole conduction, or ionic conduction
. In either case, conduction in such a high-resistivity film could lead to injection of space charge coupled with material polarization .
Saivada, "Ionic conduction
in nematic and smectic a liquid crystals," Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, vol.
Furthermore, it is also important to mention that the study of electrical conductivity of this glass system shows an ionic conduction
type produced by Pb ions and [B.sup.+3] ions at a specific concentration of [V.sub.2][O.sub.5].
Despite a common belief that solids don't conduct ions, some solids with specific structural and physical properties exhibit a fast ionic conduction
, which is comparable to that of liquids.
Besides that, N[H.sub.4.sup.+] is believed to be responsible for the ionic conduction
Studies on the ionic conduction
is focusing on the nature of the charge transport that occurred in the polymer electrolyte while the optical properties are aimed at achieving better reflection, antireflection, interface, and polarization properties.
The bulk-limited conduction mechanisms include (1) Poole-Frenkel emission, (2) hopping conduction, (3) ohmic conduction, (4) space-charge-limited conduction, (5) ionic conduction
, and (6) grain-boundary-limited conduction.
Initially as the salt concentration increases, since dissociated ions are less, both [I.sup.-] ions and [Pr.sub.4][N.sup.+] ions can be expected to be mobile and contribute to ionic conduction
and the conductivity rises sharply.
where [[summation].sub.EDL], [[summation].sub.Stern], and [[summation].sub.Prot] are the contributions to the surface conductivity from ionic conduction
in the EDL, in the Stern layer, and associated with proton transfer, respectively.
Ramadan, "Ionic conduction
in the SrTi[O.sub.3]--YSZ--SrTi[O.sub.3] heterostructure," Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol.
On the other hand, the ionic liquids that have high ionic conduction
and high catalytic activity and are thermally stable, are suitable for changing the carbon electrodes," Dr.