ionizing radiation


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ionizing radiation

[′ī·ə‚niz·iŋ ‚rād·ē′ā·shən]
(nucleonics)
Particles or photons that have sufficient energy to produce ionization directly in their passage through a substance. Also known as ionization radiation.
Particles that are capable of nuclear interactions in which sufficient energy is released to produce ionization.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ionizing Radiation

 

any radiation whose interaction with a medium ultimately leads to the ionization of atoms and molecules of the medium. Types of ionizing radiation include electromagnetic radiation, X rays, gamma radiation, and laser radiation, as well as fluxes of a-particles, electrons, positrons, protons, neutrons, and other neutral and charged particles. Charged particles ionize the atoms of the medium directly upon collision if their kinetic energy is sufficient for ionization. When neutral particles (neutrons) or photons (quanta of X rays or y-radiation) pass through the medium, ionization is brought about by the secondary charged particles that form from the interaction of the primary particles with the medium.

Ionizing radiation plays an important role in various physical and chemical processes and in biology, medicine, agriculture, and industry. Many chemical reactions take place more readily or at considerably lower temperatures and pressures under the influence of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is used in sterilization, pasteurization, and preservation of foods and pharmaceuticals. It produces various mutations in microorganisms and plants.

At the same time, ionizing radiation exerts a destructive ac-tion on matter. [10–1103-2; updated]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

ionizing radiation

When electromagnetic radiation is ionizing, it breaks the atomic bond and creates ions, which are atoms and molecules with fewer electrons or a greater number of electrons than they normally have. Examples are gamma rays, x-rays, CAT scans and ultraviolet light.

In contrast, non-ionizing radiation does not have enough energy to alter the electron structure; however, it may be harmful depending on the amount of exposure. See ion and electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thirty-eight workers (males: 34, females: 4) occupationally exposed to a low dose of ionizing radiation and 29 healthy individuals (males: 23, females: 6) were included in the study (Table 1).
A structured questionnaire was built following an in-depth literature review on ionizing radiation. The questionnaire was written in English language and translated into Arabic.
For all the potential good they can do, CT scans expose us to surprisingly high levels of ionizing radiation. On a cellular level, ionizing radiation can strip electrons from the atoms that make up our tissues, producing energetic chemical ions that damage tissue and impose potent genetic stresses.
The sixth study was a nested case-control analysis that found a statistically significant increase in the odds of BCC starting at a 1-Gy dose of ionizing radiation and rising linearly up to doses of 35-63.3 Gy.
There are lots of defense applications both in peacetime and wartime that require computers that can operate in the presence of ionizing radiation."
Radiation used for cancer treatment is called ionizing radiation because it forms ions in the cells of the tissues it passes through as it dislodges electrons from atoms.
* ISCORS Technical Report 2008-1 Guidance for Security--Guidance for Security Screening of Humans Utilizing Ionizing Radiation
"We're really trying to urge doctors that when they see a patient and have a clinical question, to think whether or not that clinical question can be answered without the use of ionizing radiation," Gerber said.
Quoting from reports by the US National Academy of Sciences (2005) on the risks from ionising radiation, and the seventh report on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII): Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation:
The Food and Drug Administration announced a final rule amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of ionizing radiation for the control of foodborne pathogens and extension of shelf-life in fresh iceberg lettuce and fresh spinach.
Ionizing radiation can be used to ensure the microbial safety of poultry.
to allow the use of ionizing radiation for the control of microbial contamination on dietary supplements and dietary ingredients (FAP 2M4741).