The disappearance of the crests corresponds to the negative ionospheric storm observed in the [DELTA]VTEC maps of Figure 5.
Finally, a localized TEC decrement (or negative ionospheric storm) was also identified.
This period coincided with a severe ionospheric storm
caused by a "solar bullet" of charged particles emitted by the sun.
Wielgosz, P., Kashani, I., and Grejner-Brzezinska, D.A.: 2005, Analysis of long-range network RTK during severe ionospheric storm. Journal of Geodesy, 79, No.
and Lagovsky, A.F.: 2012, Observation of the ionospheric storm of October 11, 2008 using FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data.
This is connected with creation of global model of ionospheric storms
and providing stable navigation in polar region.
There are no grooves, no words and no obvious framework: just an ominous, dynamic texture with occasional ionospheric storms
or a muffled scream.
The F1 layer exists only during the daytime and is more noticeable during the summer months, during periods of high sunspot activity and during ionospheric storms
. When utilizing the F1 layer for propagation of radio waves, it is necessary to increase frequency to extend the broadcast range.