Weed control during the onion cycle was carried out with three applications of herbicides, two of ioxynil
(250g [L.sup.-1]) at 1 L [ha.sup.-1] at 35 and 65 days after seedling transplantation (DAT) and one of clethodim (240g [L.sup.-1]) at 0.4 L [ha.sup.-1] at 85 DAT.
Realizaram-se ainda aplicacoes dos herbicidas (Ioxynil
e Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl) em pos- emergencia a partir de 21 dias apos o transplante (ANDREI, 1999).
Controlling weeds in onions is apt to be an especially acute problem starting in 2013, when a ban on key herbicides pendimenthalin, linuron and ioxynil
goes into effect.
This concerns eight herbicides (Amitrole, Ioxynil
, Glufosinate, Linuron, Molinate, Pendimethalin, Tepraloxydim and Tralkoxydim), eleven fungicides (Carbendazim, Dinocap, Epoxiconazole, Flumioxazin, Flusilazole, Iprodion, Mancozeb, Maneb, Metconazole, Quinoxyfen and Tebuconazole), three insecticides (Bifenthrin, Lufenuron and Thiacloprid) and one other substance, Flurprimidol.
2004), except that ioxynil
and 3,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (3,4-D) were the extraction surrogates and the cleaned extracts were derivatized by methylation.
Bioacumulation and toxicity of sediment associated herbicides (ioxynil
, pendimethalin and bentazone) in Lumbriculus variegates (Oligochaeta) and chironomus riparius (Insecta).
Many are manufactured by the giants of the German chemical industry, Bayer and BASF, such as amitrol, ioxynil
, tetraloxydim, epoxiconazole, iprodion, metconazole, tebuconazole and thiacloprid.
Others (n = 44) Amitraz Benfuresate Bentazone Benzoximate Biphenyl Bitertanol Bromopropylate Chinomethionat Chloridazon Dazomet Diquat Ethoxyquin Fenarimol Ferimzone Fluazinam Imazalil Imidacloprid Iminoctadine Indanofan Ioxynil
octanoate Iprodione Isoprothiolane Lenacil 4-Chloro-o-toloxyacetic acid (MCPA) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) Paraquat Pendimethalin 2-Phenylphenol Probenazole Procymidone Propiconazole Pyrazolynate Pyrazoxyfen Pyroquilon Sethoxydim Thiabendazole Thiocyclam Thiophanate-methyl Triadimefon Tricyclazole Triflumizole Trifluralin Triforine Vinclozolin EPN, O-ethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate.