Nevertheless, in many soils of the humid tropics, gravels are chiefly composed of ironstone or petroplinthite, which are pedogenic by definition.
The diversity of ironstone morphologies and compositions has cause difficulty with its definitions and classifications (Bourman and Ollier 2002).
The more specific terms proposed by the soil science community have not replaced traditional names: a Scopus search on 10 July 2015 returned 3200 occurrences for laterite, 844 for ironstone, 76 for plinthite and only 9 for 'petroplinthite.
Ironstone genesis is usually associated with weathering of Fe-rich basic (Schwertmann 1993; Beauvais 2009) or ultrabasic (Trescases et al.
The magnetic and non-magnetic black nodules, as well as the red earthy gravels, had mineralogical and morphological features that fit conventional concepts of ironstone or petroplinthite as products of pedogenesis.
Mika joined Ironstone in 2013 after working in investment banking at Stifel Nicolaus Canada Inc.
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