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Related to Irradiation: gamma irradiation, Blood Irradiation


Subjection of a biological system to sound waves of sufficient intensity to modify their structure or function.
The exposure of a material, object, or patient to x-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet rays, or other ionizing radiation.
An optical illusion which makes bright objects appear larger than they really are.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in physiology, the spread of excitation or inhibition in the central nervous system. Irradiation plays an important part in cerebrocortical activity. The irradiation of excitation is manifested most distinctly after strong stimulation, when nerve centers usually not involved in a reflex response are drawn into the process. For example, moderate pain inflicted on the skin of an animal’s foot causes the paw to flex in the talocalcaneal joint. Increasing the force of stimulation causes the leg to flex in the knee and hip joints. In studying the effect of an inhibitory conditioned stimulus, I. P. Pavlov showed that inhibition can also spread (irradiate) in the cells of the cerebral cortex.



the apparent enlargement of the dimensions of white (light) objects against a black (dark) background (given the comparatively great brightness of the white object) or, conversely, the apparent diminution of the dimensions of black objects against a white background. (The first instance is called positive irradiation; the second, negative.)

As a result of irradiation, a thin black thread or wire observed against a bright flame seems to be interrupted in that segment, and the bright crescent of the new moon seems to have a larger diameter than the ash-gray disk of the moon seen simultaneously with it. The degree of irradiation increases when the brightness of the light background or object increases. Irradiation is caused by optical defects of the eye (spherical and chromatic aberrations), diffraction phenomena in the eye, and imperfect fixation of the eye on the objects observed.


Kravkov, S. V. Glaz i ego rabota: Psikhofiziologiia zreniia, gigiena osvesh-cheniia, 4th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950. (Includes bibliography.)
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
To measure the in vivo tumor formation of PC3 cells and their response to irradiation, mice were assigned to seven groups (n=8) with or without subcutaneous injection of [10.sup.7] PC3 cells transfected with sh-HULC, sh-NC, pEX-2 or pEX-HULC, together with irradiation (0 or 6 Gy) at 4 weeks post-injection.
In irradiation, food products are exposed to ionizing energy for a specific length of time to treat them for germs and insects, increasing its longevity and shelf life.
In this paper, limiting factors for longer irradiation testing of the irradiation capsule were discussed and different designs of the capsule were out-pile-tested.
Varieties were arranged as main plots (Sigupai, Cantek Manis, Rom Mokot, Ramos Mirah, and Sanbei) and gamma-ray irradiation dose as subplots (without irradiation, 250 Gy, 500 Gy).
Determination of irradiation induced hydrocarbons is a chemical method applied for identification of irradiated fat-containing foods.
9 February 2017 - US-based mergers and acquisitions firm Woodbridge International advised its client, US-based X-ray irradiation systems provider Rad Source Technologies, Inc.
Irradiation. Packaged SBJ samples were gamma-irradiated at Chengdu Xinjin Biochemical Engineering Research Institute (Chengdu, China) inside a package irradiator (Gamma Cell 220, NORDION Intl.
Recently, there are many literatures about modification of PAN precursors using [gamma]-ray irradiation, but the dose is relatively small which not exceeds 400 kGy.
Typical Gram-negative spoilage organisms are very sensitive to irradiation. Combinations of irradiation and low storage temperature can produce hygienic meat (O' Bryan et al., 2008).
Here's how it does work: At a special irradiation plant--there are just a handful in the United States--workers zap food with a machine similar to the kind that administers radiation to cancer patients.
Food irradiation technology is one of the most effective methods to minimize the abysmal effects of chemical preservation.
"Gamma Irradiation Technology can not only enhance shelf life of fruits, vegetables and other food items but could also help overcome the issue of fruit fly in mangos which had badly affected the export of Pakistani mango".