irredentism

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irredentism

(ĭrĭden`tĭzəm), originally, the Italian nationalist movement for the annexation to Italy of territories—Italia irredenta [unredeemed Italy]—inhabited by an Italian majority but retained by Austria after 1866. These included the Trentino, Trieste, Istria, Fiume, and parts of Dalmatia. Agitation took place both inside Austria-Hungary and in Italy itself. The liberation of Italia irredenta was perhaps the strongest motive for the entry of Italy into World War I. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) satisfied most of the irredentist claims. The term irredentism has, by extension, been applied to nationalist agitation in other countries, based on historical, ethnic, and geographical reasons, for the incorporation of territories under foreign rule. Irredentism is thus closely connected with nationalismnationalism,
political or social philosophy in which the welfare of the nation-state as an entity is considered paramount. Nationalism is basically a collective state of mind or consciousness in which people believe their primary duty and loyalty is to the nation-state.
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 and with minorityminority,
in international law, population group with a characteristic culture and sense of identity occupying a subordinate political status. Religious minorities were known from ancient times, but ethnic minorities did not become an issue in European politics until the rise of
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 problems.

Irredentism

 

a political and social movement in Italy at the end of the 19th century and the start of the 20th for annexing to Italy neighboring territory populated by Italians—Trieste, Trentino, and other areas.

Irredentist organizations included the Association of Struggle for the Liberation of Italy, as well as the organization Trentino and Trieste and the organization Dante Alighieri. Among the leaders (prominent republicans) were F. Cavallotti, M. R. Im-briani, and J. Bovio. In the beginning, irredentism was represented by forces of the democratic opposition and developed under slogans for a struggle to complete the unification of Italy and slogans against the Triple Alliance of 1882 and Italian colonialist expansion in Africa. Later, as Italy began to move toward imperialism, the imperialist bourgeoisie began to use irredentist slogans to justify broad territorial claims in the Balkans and on the Adriatic. Some of the irredentists took part in the activities of the Nationalist Association, a predecessor of Fascism, and actively supported colonial aggression in North Africa in 1911–12 and Italy’s participation in World War I (1914–18). After the war, irredentism as an independent movement disappeared, merging with Fascism.

Z. P. IAKHIMOVTCH

References in periodicals archive ?
Secession and Irredenta in World Politics: The Neglected Interstate Dimension.
Lima rescindio en un tratado medio secreto su presunta soberania en 1922, pero la resistencia de la elite loretana, siempre irredenta en este aspecto, le permitio solidarizar con la expedicion "civil" que intento tomarse por la fuerza a Leticia en 1932.
Para ello se justifica como innata la barbarie, que se encarna biologicamente en el indio, por lo que solo una parte sera sujeta al proceso de civilizacion; la restante, la mas organizada en muchos casos sera desestructurada y reducida a la categoria de salvaje e irredenta.
En el corazon del mundo arabe, Palestina es hoy por hoy la tierra irredenta.
Y, sin embargo, mira, puedo cerrar los ojos y no haber salido del cuento y que la abuela no haya muerto nostalgica, irredenta, desde hace anos y que no hay sido hollada la vieja casa de la abuela el primer tablero de ajedrez de mi vida (25)
The Great War was bringing most of the terra irredenta back into the fold of the Nation and was thus fulfilling the objectives of the Risorgimento.
There it remained until 1919, when it was assigned to Italy as partial return of the terra irredenta for which so many died in the multiple battles at the river Isonzo.
With considerable frequency, so is the territory, and this takes us to the realm of irredenta, another phenomenon that leads to foreign policy irrationalities, not only in Spanish America.
De esto ultimo se entienden las amplias razones que existen para comprender al caracter indomito de una sociedad civil irredenta en cuanto que se opone al despotismo y tirania del monopolio.
A lost Kosovo will forever be an irredenta for Serbia.
war or in attempts to recover notional irredenta, and the pursuit of
The Hokkaido Prefectural Government embraces the cause, and a large observation tower has been erected on the eastern tip of Hokkaido so tourists there can see the terra irredenta.