irredentism


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irredentism

(ĭrĭden`tĭzəm), originally, the Italian nationalist movement for the annexation to Italy of territories—Italia irredenta [unredeemed Italy]—inhabited by an Italian majority but retained by Austria after 1866. These included the Trentino, Trieste, Istria, Fiume, and parts of Dalmatia. Agitation took place both inside Austria-Hungary and in Italy itself. The liberation of Italia irredenta was perhaps the strongest motive for the entry of Italy into World War I. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) satisfied most of the irredentist claims. The term irredentism has, by extension, been applied to nationalist agitation in other countries, based on historical, ethnic, and geographical reasons, for the incorporation of territories under foreign rule. Irredentism is thus closely connected with nationalismnationalism,
political or social philosophy in which the welfare of the nation-state as an entity is considered paramount. Nationalism is basically a collective state of mind or consciousness in which people believe their primary duty and loyalty is to the nation-state.
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 and with minorityminority,
in international law, population group with a characteristic culture and sense of identity occupying a subordinate political status. Religious minorities were known from ancient times, but ethnic minorities did not become an issue in European politics until the rise of
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 problems.

Irredentism

 

a political and social movement in Italy at the end of the 19th century and the start of the 20th for annexing to Italy neighboring territory populated by Italians—Trieste, Trentino, and other areas.

Irredentist organizations included the Association of Struggle for the Liberation of Italy, as well as the organization Trentino and Trieste and the organization Dante Alighieri. Among the leaders (prominent republicans) were F. Cavallotti, M. R. Im-briani, and J. Bovio. In the beginning, irredentism was represented by forces of the democratic opposition and developed under slogans for a struggle to complete the unification of Italy and slogans against the Triple Alliance of 1882 and Italian colonialist expansion in Africa. Later, as Italy began to move toward imperialism, the imperialist bourgeoisie began to use irredentist slogans to justify broad territorial claims in the Balkans and on the Adriatic. Some of the irredentists took part in the activities of the Nationalist Association, a predecessor of Fascism, and actively supported colonial aggression in North Africa in 1911–12 and Italy’s participation in World War I (1914–18). After the war, irredentism as an independent movement disappeared, merging with Fascism.

Z. P. IAKHIMOVTCH

References in periodicals archive ?
And when we say irredentism we have in mind three things: this name can by no means suggest changing of borders; secondly, this name can's suggest ethnic affiliation outside of FYROM's borders; and thirdly, this name can't refer to a language outside of their borders, which would entail minority rights in this area, too.
Strate's work is important because it effectively uncovers and unites into a single framework what historians have generally treated as unconnected, epiphenomenal trends and moments in modern Thai history, connecting the dots of extraterritoriality, irredentism, and anti-foreignism.
Trieste's paradigmatic character within the larger Habsburg context becomes explicit in chapter 20 of Book II, in what I call the "Trieste chapter" of the novel, where Count Leinsdorf bitterly complains about the growing Italian Irredentism in the city.
Instead nationalism, genocide, irredentism and military aggression, which were thought to be in decline, are alive and well, finding new and powerful means of being deployed in Ukraine and beyond,a the analysis reads.
Futurism's obsession with irredentism and interventionism lent vital momentum to the Fascist revolution.
At his return, not knowing the state of spirit of the country and believing that he still enjoys popular support, he condemned at the meeting from 21st of December 1989, the demonstrations from Timisoara, calling the demonstrations as "fascist" and the participants as "thugs" inspired by Hungarian irredentism.
Raising the specter of Indian presence in Afghanistan seeks to legitimize Pakistan's hegemonic designs in Afghanistan that have an origin in the attempts to neutralise the Pashtun nationalist irredentism by upending it with the Pakistan-friendly Islamists.
The nations have been targets of Kurdish irredentism and, at times, used the Kurdish card to Turkey's detriment when mutual relations, as is the case today with Syria and Iran, have been tense.
Thompson's criticisms of the terrorism of the Irgun and of Israeli irredentism still resonate, were notably courageous, and resulted in her columns being dropped by the Washington Star, the New York Post, the Toledo Blade, and the Cleveland Plain-Dealer.
It is they who dream of Afghan conquest and Kashmiri irredentism.
Therefore, it is useful to know whether or not irredentism could be used as a justification for military actions.
As a result, the ferocious strain of antisemitism in Palestinian irredentism transferred easily from the mufti's contribution to the Final Solution, Nazi propaganda, and helping Nazism flourish in Egypt and Syria, to Arafat's national liberation and Hamas's apocalyptic paranoia.