In the present work, taking the concept of Valanis constitutive model without using the yield surface, an elastic-plastic endochronic constitutive model of 0Crl7Ni4Cu4Nb stainless steel was established based on irreversible thermodynamics
of internal variables and using the endochronic theory and true stress-train curves of 0Crl7Ni4Cu4Nb stainless steel.
Extended irreversible thermodynamics
[1, 2] and extended thermodynamics [12, 13] are relatively recent approaches to nonequilibrium thermodynamics phenomena [14, 15], which at variance with classical irreversible thermodynamics
 incorporate higher-order moments (to be interpreted as flux of fluxes) in the thermodynamic state description of system.
(9) A classic modern standard text for the most general development of thermodynamics is Thermodynamics: An Introduction to the Physical Theories of Equilibrium Thermostatics and Irreversible Thermodynamics
by Herbert Callen (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1960).
Among his topics are the first and second laws of thermodynamics, entropy generation or exergy destruction, single-phase and multi-phase systems, chemically reactive systems, solar power, refrigeration, and irreversible thermodynamics
. Earlier editions appeared in 1987 and 1996.
The assumption of a constitutive entropy flux is a straightforward generalization of the Gibbs-Duhem inequality, and one can prove that in simple cases it leads to the classical form and to the classical results both in irreversible thermodynamics
 and in thermoelasticity in particular .
The conference and also this special issue feature contributions in different fields of continuum physics such as Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics
, Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, Mesoscopic Continuum Physics, and Numerical Methods.
While linear irreversible thermodynamics
was fully developed in the middle 20th century, he says, a unified formulation of non-linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics is clearly needed, and he furthers that endeavor by reviewing classical and new elements of the phenomenological and the statistical approaches.
Among the several thermodynamic theories going beyond the local-equilibrium approach, Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics
(EIT) provides generalized transport equations that incorporate memory and nonlocal effects, that reduce to the classical transport equations for low frequency and short mean-free paths, and that are able to incorporate the high-frequency behaviour of dissipative signals as, for instance, a finite speed of propagation of heat pulses, and general features of ballistic behaviour for long mean-free paths.
The authors assume readers are familiar with the concepts taught in introductory university courses in physics and chemistry, and cover basic laws of classical and irreversible thermodynamics
, phase equilibria, the thermodynamic theory of solutions, chemical reaction thermodynamics and kinetics, surface and interfacial phenomena, stressed systems, diffusion and statistical thermodynamics of gases and condensed matter.