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5 km on 31 December along the 330-K isentrope, eventually capping out at 13.
Is it a tilted isentrope, a horizontal density gradient, or a combination of different variables?
This tropopause is identified by maximized potential vorticity (PV) gradients on isentropes.
The potential temperature structure was consistent with the secondary circulation, indicating lowered isentropes in the eye associated with deep subsidence.
The peak displacements of the isentropes are nearly horizontal, suggesting that the waves have minimal vertical propagation.
The radiosonde transect across a warm frontal surface shows sloping isentropes (Fig.
5b), the WRF isentropes are relatively flat at low levels with no evidence of a well-defined marine layer, and as a result, the winds are 2-3 m [s.
The descending isentropes of the lee wave bring warm air down into the crater over the southwestern part, producing large horizontal temperature differences over a short distance between the southwestern part and the undisturbed crater atmosphere farther downstream.
Decreasing spacing of the isentropes between the surface and the midtroposphere indicates increasing atmospheric stability on the upwind side of the mountain top (lapse rates of 5-6[degrees]C [km.
A high contrast (black) was used to code the important information: borders for the geographical orientation and the isentropes for the frontal analysis.