Ica

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Related to islet autoantibodies: GAD antibodies

Içá,

river, Brazil: see PutumayoPutumayo
or Içá
, river, c.1,000 mi (1,600 km) long, rising in the Andes, S Colombia, and flowing SE to the Amazon in NW Brazil. Mostly navigable, it marks part of Colombia's boundary with Ecuador and most of Colombia's frontier with Peru.
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.

Ica

(ē`kä), city (1993 pop. 108,724), capital of Ica region, SW Peru, on the Pan-American HighwayPan-American Highway,
system of roads, c.16,000 mi (25,750 km) long, linking the nations of the Western Hemisphere. It was suggested at the Fifth International Conference of American States (1923) and supported and financed by the United States during the 1940s and 1950s.
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. It is a commercial center for the cotton, wool, and wine produced in the region. There are several summer resorts nearby. Ica is also the archaeological name of the Chincha empire of ancient Peru, which had one of its major centers in the adjacent valley. The empire fell to the Inca in the 15th cent. The Spanish settled the city in 1563. In Ica is the shrine of Our Lord of Luren, the site of colorful pilgrimages. The city has been devastated by earthquakes several times, most recently in 2007. It has a museum and a university.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ica

 

a city in Peru on the Pan-American Highway, the administrative center of lea Department. Population, 61,400 (1966). Ica is linked by railroad with the port of Pisco. The city is the trade center of an agricultural region (cotton and grapes). Textile and food industries are there, as is a university. The city of Ica was founded in 1563.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICA

(Independent Computing Architecture) An input/output presentation protocol from Citrix that governs the keyboard, mouse and screen formatting between clients and servers in Citrix's products. Originally "Intelligent Console Architecture."

The First Windows Thin Client Computing
Using Citrix's WinFrame on Windows NT in the mid-1990s, ICA was the first protocol to provide thin client computing for Windows. Soon after, Microsoft came out with its Terminal Services, based largely on Citrix software, but using the RDP protocol. ICA supports numerous client platforms, including Windows, DOS, Mac, Unix, Linux and Java. See thin client, WinFrame, Citrix XenApp and Citrix XenDesktop.


ICA in Practice
ICA is used in Citrix products such as XenApp, while Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is used in Microsoft's built-in thin client software.
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References in periodicals archive ?
At disease onset, most type 1 diabetes patients have autoantibodies to 1 or more of the following: islet cell cytoplasm, insulin [insulin autoantibodies (IAAs)], [3] the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), insulinoma-associated antigen 2 (IA-2), and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) (these are collectively termed islet autoantibodies).
Others found that the development of persistent islet antibodies is associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR3-DQ2 / DR4-DQ8 genotype, both in relatives of T1DM and in children from general population, whereas transient islet autoantibodies were not correlated with known genetic factors.
Schonecker et al., "Development of type 1 diabetes in wild bank voles associated with islet autoantibodies the novel Ljungan virus," Experimental Diabesity Research, vol.
In the BABYDIAB study, 85 of the 1,610 (5%) at-risk children studied developed islet autoantibodies by 5 years of age.
If needed, genotypes of SLC30A8 and other islet autoantibodies, such as GADA and IAA, should be detected as well.{Figure 2}
What are islet autoantibodies? An islet autoantibody is an autoantibody that targets autoantigens that are on the surface of islet cells or within islet cells, or are products of islet cells (Table 1).
HLA genotype and levels of islet autoantibodies (ICA, IAA, GADA, and IA2A) were determined for all ARS as described elsewhere [27].
The frequency of islet autoantibodies in black patients with type 1 diabetes is reportedly lower than in whites, and this might therefore have affected both sensitivity and specificity analyses.
Simell et al., "Seroconversion to multiple islet autoantibodies and risk of progression to diabetes in children," JAMA--Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.
Moreover, islet-reactive T cells responding to multiple islet proteins have been found in both T1D patients (15-18) and phenotypic T2D patients with and without islet autoantibodies, the historical hallmark of islet autoimmunity (19-22).
If destruction of the [beta] cells by CD8 T-killer cells and macrophages is the "fire," the "smoke" (e.g., clinical evidence of [beta]-cell autoreactivity) represents islet autoantibodies (4).
For instance, the HLA-[DQA1.sup.*]0102, [DQB1.sup.*]0602 haplotype confers dominant protection from T1D, even in the presence of islet autoantibodies (21).