islets of Langerhans

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Related to islets of Langerhans: insulin, pancreas, somatostatin

islets of Langerhans:

see pancreaspancreas
, glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. (17.8 cm) long and 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) wide. It lies beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenum (see digestive system).
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Islets of Langerhans


the groups of cells in the pancreas of man and vertebrates (except cyclostomes) that form the endocrine part of the organ, secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.

The islets of Langerhans are named for the German scientist P. Langerhans, who described them in 1869. In 1901, the Russian scientist L. V. Sobolev proved their endocrine function and established the occurrence of changes in the islets with diabetes mellitus. The dimensions of the islets of Langerhans are 50 to 500 microns, and there are between ten and 20 islets per mg of gland tissue. The islets do not communicate with the gland’s effluent ducts.

The islets of Langerhans develop from tubular processes of the anterior gut and, depending on the type of animal, consist of cells of several types. All animals have α cells and β cells. The granules of α cells are considered to be a form of glucagon deposit; the β cells, of insulin. C cells and D cells (the former have been found in the islets of Langerhans of guinea pigs; the latter, in man and dogs), which lack granules, are converted to α cells and β cells. In all, the tissue of the islets of Langerhans makes up 0.9 to 3.6 percent of the mass of the pancreas in children and 0.9 to 2.7 percent in adults.


References in periodicals archive ?
Conclusion: Sodium cyclamate affects the histomorphology of endocrine pancreas by increasing the area of islets of langerhans in treated group.
In 1910, Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer suggested that people with diabetes were deficient in a single chemical that was normally produced by the pancreas -- he proposed calling this substance ''insulin"', from the Latin ''insula'', meaning island, in reference to the insulinproducing islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
The Islets of Langerhans try to adapt themselves to this condition by increasing the number of insulin-producing beta-cells and/or modulating their individual secretion of insulin in response to the intake of sugar.
sylvestre stimulated the insulin secretion in islets of Langerhans and pancreatic [beta]-cell lines (Persaud et al.
Isolated islets of Langerhans were loaded with 5 [micro]M fura 2-acetoxymethyl ester for at least 1 hr at room temperature.
Furthermore, the [alpha]-gal antigen expression is not ubiquitously present in all porcine cell types, and in particular it is not expressed on the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans (Vales-Gonzalez et al.
38 The islets of Langerhans, involved in the production of insulin, are found in which organ?
Embedded within the exocrine tissue are countless (perhaps millions of) cells called the islets of Langerhans, which Dr.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, an organ near the stomach, in small glands called the Islets of Langerhans.
That disease occurs when a person's immune system destroys pancreas cells called islets of Langerhans, which secrete insulin.
He is recognized for developing techniques to isolate and culture clusters of cells known as the islets of langerhans found throughout the pancreas.
Insulin is produced by clusters of cells in the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans.