isolationism


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isolationism,

a national policy of abstaining from political, military, or economic alliances or agreements with other countries. Isolationism may be adopted in order to devote a country's energies to becoming self-sufficient or addressing domestic problems, or sometimes to contain foreign influence. Many countries have had policies of isolationism at one time, including China, Japan, Albania, Paraguay, and North Korea.

Political and military isolationism has been a recurring sentiment in the United States, beginning with George WashingtonWashington, George,
1732–99, 1st President of the United States (1789–97), commander in chief of the Continental army in the American Revolution, called the Father of His Country. Early Life

He was born on Feb. 22, 1732 (Feb. 11, 1731, O.S.
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's Farewell Address in 1796, in which he warned the young nation against becoming involved in European politics and wars. The aspects of isolationism inform the Monroe DoctrineMonroe Doctrine,
principle of American foreign policy enunciated in President James Monroe's message to Congress, Dec. 2, 1823. It initially called for an end to European intervention in the Americas, but it was later extended to justify U.S.
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 (1823), which opposed European intervention in the Western Hemisphere, especially in Latin America, and stated that the United States would not interfere in European affairs. The country's reluctant participation in World War I marked a departure from its former policy, but the losses suffered in war and the failure of Woodrow WilsonWilson, Woodrow
(Thomas Woodrow Wilson), 1856–1924, 28th President of the United States (1913–21), b. Staunton, Va. Educator

He graduated from Princeton in 1879 and studied law at the Univ. of Virginia.
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's internationalism caused public opinion to once more turn against foreign entanglements, and contributed to the U.S. rejection of the League of Nations.

Isolationism again became a popular political stance in the 1920s and 30s. The Neutrality ActNeutrality Act,
law passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Aug., 1935. It was designed to keep the United States out of a possible European war by banning shipment of war matériel to belligerents at the discretion of the President
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 of 1935 was a reaction to the American public's fear of being involved in another costly war. The Great Depression also caused Americans to turn their concerns inward during this time. A strong noninterventionist lobby, led by the America First Committee and its popular spokesman Charles LindberghLindbergh, Charles Augustus,
1902–74, American aviator who made the first solo, nonstop transatlantic flight, b. Detroit; son of Charles A. Lindbergh (1859–1924). He left the Univ. of Wisconsin (1922) to study flying.
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, was able to keep the United States from entering World War II until the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941. President Franklin RooseveltRoosevelt, Franklin Delano
, 1882–1945, 32d President of the United States (1933–45), b. Hyde Park, N.Y. Early Life

Through both his father, James Roosevelt, and his mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt, he came of old, wealthy families.
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 and other U.S. leaders subsequently supported establishing the United Nations and America's active participation in it. After the war, the rise of the Soviet Union and its sphere of influence (and strong U.S. opposition to that), improved communication and transportion, increased world trade, and other changes made it impossible for the United States to again cut itself off from the rest of the world.

Bibliography

See S. Dunn, 1940: FDR, Wilkie, Lindbergh, Hitler—The Election amid the Storm (2013); L. Olson, Those Angry Days: Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and America's Fight over World War II, 1939–1941 (2013).

Isolationism

 

in the USA, a term used since the mid-19th century, primarily to designate a trend in US foreign policy, the central idea of which is nonintervention in European affairs or in armed conflicts outside the American continent in general.

The theory and practice of isolationism, whose origins can be traced to the period of the War of Independence of 1775–83, took shape under the impact of a number of factors. The American continent was geographically isolated. In addition, the US developed a satisfactory internal market, which promoted the tendency for a significant part of the bourgeoisie to take very little interest in overseas expansion. Finally, during the first few decades of its existence, the US was relatively weak economically and militarily. A peculiar reflection of American nationalism, early isolationism played a crucial role in protecting the USA from intervention on the part of monarchist Europe, above all Great Britain, which longed to regain the position it had lost on the American continent.

The principles of isolationism, which were in fact applied only to Europe, did not mean that the US wished to remain generally isolated politically, and even less so economically. In practical terms, the leaders of American foreign policy regarded isolationism as a way of taking advantage of the contradictions between the European powers. Refusing to make any long-term military or political alliances with them and proclaiming US neutrality in European wars (beginning in 1793), US leaders later abandoned neutrality in major worldwide armed conflicts. Thus, in practice, isolationism gave rise to the policy of “having a free hand.”

Isolationist principles related to this policy and to the Monroe Doctrine contained the seeds of pan-Americanism and served as a screen for US expansionist aims in Latin America. With the entry of the USA into the epoch of imperialism, monopolist circles endeavored to take advantage of the principles of isolationism to broaden US expansionist policies, making use of the new possibilities arising from the world industrial superiority that had been achieved by the nation. In the 1920’s, American isolationism was associated with the refusal to ratify the Versailles Treaty of 1919 and to join the League of Nations, the raising of tariff walls, and restrictive immigration laws. The 1930’s were marked by a major outburst of isolationist attitudes. The Neutrality Acts of 1935–37, which were passed under the slogan of nonintervention in European affairs, were used by American reactionaries to “appease” the fascist aggressors. Thus, the acts contributed to the outbreak of World War II. After the war, isolationism in the traditional sense ceased to play an important role in US politics.

Since the late 19th century the term “isolationism” has also been used to designate a broad social movement—the isolationism of the masses, which is based on the desire to avoid participation in wars outside the American continent. One of the forms of the antiwar movement and the protest against expansion by US monopolies, the isolationism of the masses was quite widespread after World War I and was expressed in support for the idea of international cooperation in the interests of preserving peace as well as in the neutralist illusions that were widely held at the time of the Neutrality Acts. However, as the fascist states extended their policy of aggression, the opposition to war among the masses in the USA became less pacifist and “isolationist” (in the sense of aloofness from world events) and acquired an increasingly antifascist tone, becoming the breeding ground for statements favoring active opposition to fascism.

In the mid-1950’s and late 1960’s there was a noticeable rise in isolationist attitudes in American society. Referred to as “neoisolationism,” these attitudes are a result of intensified competition among the advanced capitalist countries, dissatisfaction of various social strata with the expansionist foreign policy of US ruling circles, and a number of other factors. Neoisolationism has been expressed especially in liberal criticism of NATO and other military alliances of the capitalist countries, in demonstrations of opposition to the excessive attention paid to foreign affairs at the expense of domestic problems, and in demands for cutting off military aid to other countries, for “withdrawal from Europe,” and for an end to the war of aggression in Southeast Asia.

D. G. NADZHAFOV

References in periodicals archive ?
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His reluctance was not because of America's traditional isolationism, although Wilson had taken advantage of that sentiment in his 1916 reelection campaign, using "He Kept Us Out of War'' as his slogan.
She enumerated certain drawbacks for the family including the weakening of familial ties by fomenting generational gaps, triggering depression, isolationism, introvertness by doing away with religious constants and substituting them with virtual values.
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The clarion call was for a solid middle course between isolationism and interventionism that, at least for Obama, lambasted critics who maintained that he gave up on America.
It was a somber parade of straw men, as the president applauded himself for steering the nation on a nervy middle course between extreme isolationism and madcap interventionism.
In a climate of isolationism and noninterventionism, President Franklin Roosevelt, through innovative strategies, equipped military forces in peacetime, while ratcheting back on liberal rhetoric before conversion to war production in 1942.
Enhanced with an extensive introduction, illuminating notes, a bibliography, and more, With Commodore Perry to Japan: The Journal of William Speiden Jr., 1852-1855 collects the personal journal writings of William Speiden Jr., the sixteen-year-old purser's clerk of the USS Mississippi as he accompanied Commodore Perry on his historic voyage to force an end to Japan's centuries of isolationism. Black-and-white reproductions of the hand-drawn, pen-and-ink scenes of daily life that Speiden and other crew members sketched, as well as pith paintings by Chinese artists, intersperse this invaluable primary testimony.