isoleucine


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Related to isoleucine: valine, methionine

isoleucine

(ī'səlo͞o`sēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. It is one of several essential amino acids needed in the diet; human beings cannot synthesize it from simpler metabolites. Young adults need about 20 mg of this amino acid per day per kg (or about 8 mg per lb) of body weight. Isoleucine can be degraded into simpler compounds by the enzymes of the body. In a rare, inherited disorder called maple syrup urine disease, a nonfunctional enzyme in the common pathway of isoleucine, leucineleucine
, organic compund, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereooisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, and valinevaline
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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 degradation causes the buildup of certain metabolites in the urine, resulting in the characteristic odor from which the disease derives its name. Once isoleucine is incorporated into protein, it contributes to the structure of protein by the tendency of its side chain (composed only of carbon and hydrogen) to seek an environment consisting of similar side chains, like those of leucine, valine, tryptophantryptophan
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, and phenylalaninephenylalanine
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, and to exclude water. This hydrophobic property is analogous to that which prevents oil from dissolving in water. The tendency for these hydrophobic residues to associate with one another is evidently quite important in determining the bending and folding (tertiary structure) of the peptide chain characteristically seen in every protein. Isoleucine was isolated from beet sugar molasses in 1904.

Isoleucine

 

α-amino-β-methylvaleric acid, C2H5CH(CH3)-CH(NH2)COOH, an amino acid discovered by F. Ehrlich (1904), among the decomposition products of fibrin protein; one of the group of branched-carbon-chain monoamino aliphatic monocarboxylic acids.

Isoleucine is present in proteins in only small amounts, but it is an essential amino acid for man, animals, and many microorganisms and must be introduced with food. The daily human requirement of isoleucine is about 1.5 -2 g.

isoleucine

[¦ī·sō′lü‚sēn]
(biochemistry)
C6H13O2 An essential monocarboxylic amino acid occurring in most dietary proteins.
References in periodicals archive ?
Short/branched-chain acylCoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD; (5) OMIM +600301) is an autosomal recessively inherited defect in isoleucine catabolism.
The mean leucine, valine and isoleucine concentrations were essentially comparable between children and adults (Table 1) and plasma alloisoleucine was 1.
Weighed valine, leucine, or isoleucine (Sigma Chemical, St.
082) tended to decrease in the SDPP and YE groups, whereas plasma isoleucine increased significantly in the SDPP and YE groups (P<0.
Is performed with tandem mass spectrometry using concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and Fisher ratio as diagnostic measures.
The effects of GanedenBC 30 with protein were examined in a random double blind crossover clinical trial on key amino acids including leucine (the regulator for muscle protein synthesis), isoleucine and valine (branched chain amino acids), as well as histidine, alanine, asparagines, citrulline, cystine, glutamine (a key amino acid for supporting ph balance and the immune system), methionine, ornthinine, serine, threonine, tryptophan and phenylalanine.
BCAAs include leucine, isoleucine, and valine and constitute an important class of essential amino acids.
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val)) are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized de novo [5].
The criteria for evaluation of the results of the study were the structural changes of thirteen amino acids: arginine, lysine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, isoleucine + leucine, methionine, valine, proline, threonine, serine, alanine, glycine [7].
Leucine, lysine, valine, and isoleucine were the major constituents of total protein intake (5126.
These abnormalities are thought to be due to erratic delivery of levodopa to the brain, which may result from the fact that large neutral amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, and tryptophan) compete with levodopa for intestinal absorption and for transport across the blood-brain barrier.
The vitamins and minerals present in whey have high bioavailability, while its amino acid profile has high amount of branched-chain amino acids such as valine, isoleucine and leucine.