isoniazid


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Related to isoniazid: Pyrazinamide

isoniazid

(ī'sōnī`əzĭd), drug used to treat tuberculosistuberculosis
(TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and
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. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease. It is usually given together with some other antituberculosis drug such as streptomycinstreptomycin
, antibiotic produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces and active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stain), including species resistant to other antibiotics, e.g.
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 or para-aminosalicylic acid to prevent emergence of drug resistant organisms (see drug resistancedrug resistance,
condition in which infecting bacteria can resist the destructive effects of drugs such as antibiotics and sulfa drugs. Drug resistance has become a serious public health problem, since many disease-causing bacteria are no longer susceptible to previously
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). To prevent development of tuberculosis in individuals who have a positive reaction to a tuberculin skin test, isoniazid is given alone. Side effects are seen only with very high doses.

isoniazid

[‚ī·sə′nī·ə·zəd]
(pharmacology)
C6H7N3O A drug used as a tuberculostatic. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide.
References in periodicals archive ?
Therapy was initiated and completed for most children, most of whom were treated with twice-weekly DOPT with isoniazid. This treatment was safe; no child developed hepatotoxicity.
Keeping in view the important roles of these elements in living organisms' biochemical processes we have synthesized the copper (II), iron (II), iron (III), cobalt (II) and nickel (II) complexes of isoniazid as an attempt to make newer compounds with more therapeutic effects.
Four first line anti TB drugs including rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol were tested.
This prospective observational study aimed to compare the incidences of hepatitis and side effects between the new 2-month combination regimen (2HRZ plus excipient) and the standard 3-month regimen comprising isoniazid and rifapentine for LTBI treatment in Taiwan.
Efavirenz pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in HIV-infected persons receiving rifapentine and isoniazid for tuberculosis prevention.
They found drug administration with food caused the time taken for drug to start taking effect after absorption in blood to decrease by 50 per cent, 45 per cent and 34 per cent for rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide, respectively.
tuberculosis resistance to antibiotics were due to mutations of the genes targeted by anti-tuberculosis drugs, such as gene rpoB for rifampin, katG gene for isoniazid, pncA gene for pyrazinamide, and embB gene ethambutol [3,4].
The critical concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin used were 0.25 [micro]g/mL, 32 [micro]g/mL, 2 [micro]g/mL, 4 [micro]g/mL, respectively.
Seventy-two of 79 treatment eligible patients accepted the offer of treatment, which was three months of daily isoniazid and rifampin.
The use of isoniazid in the management of isoniazid resistant disease is controversial.
The World Health Organization (WHO) declared multi-drug resistant TB (MDRTB), defined as Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, a public health crisis in 2013.