The essential oil breaks down into butylphthalide, carvacrol, isosafrole
, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, safrole and many others.
For food flavorings, the only class of compounds with usage restrictions by regulatory bodies to some of its constituents is the extraction solvent class, where the agaric acid, aloin, beta-azarone, berberine, coumarin, hydrocyanic acid, hypericin, pulegone, quassine, safrole and isosafrole
, santonin and tuyona alpha and beta have maximum tolerable limits discriminated in documents (Brasil, 1999; Brasil, 2007).
, piperonal, and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone
For example, piperonyl butoxide, isosafrole
, kavalactones, podophyllotoxin, and epipodophyllotoxin are involved in the inhibition of CYP activity (Mathews et al.
These compounds represent stimulant amphetamine analogues, homologues, and derivatives (e.g., 2- and 1-phenethylamines); hallucinogenic amphetamines (3,4-methylenedioxy and 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine analogues and derivatives, 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine); their main precursors (e.g., sympathomimetic amines such as ephedrine, its analogues and isomers, safrole, isosafrole
, PMK, BMK, etc.); compounds structurally similar to the side chain of amphetamines (e.g., putrescine and cadaverine); and other controlled substances (cocaine, opiates, opioids, etc.).
procedure for a practical preparation of piperonal from isosafrole
& KINI, R.M., 1999.--Bioactivities of safrole and isosafrole
on Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).
Microbiologic oxidation of isosafrole
Interaction of isosafrole
, [beta]-naphthoflavone and other CYPIA inducers in liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and eelpout (Zoarces viviparus).
The four conspirators were going to supply them with 18 litres of Isosafrole
, a chemical usually used to make perfumes, but also vital in the manufacture of MDMA, better known as Ecstasy, Southwark Crown Court heard.
Among them, the one with restricted use for some of its constituents is the extraction solvent, where the agaric acid, aloin, beta-azorona, berberine, coumarin, hydrocyanic acid, hypericin, pulegone, quassina, safrole and isosafrole
, santonin and alpha and beta tuyona have maximum tolerable limits to compose the food flavorings (Brasil, 1999).
Because of its widespread use and structural resemblance to the known carcinogens safrole, isosafrole
, and estragole, methyleugenol was nominated for toxicologic characterization and testing by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) (Miller et al.