Consequently several researches have been centered to find the isosmotic
point, where the organism doesn't use the energy for osmoregulation and therefore it channels it to growth.
Water diffuses through the tubular wall to dilute the higher interstitial concentration, so that the tubular fluid that ultimately exits the proximal tubule (and enters the descending loop of Henle) is relatively isosmotic
with respect to the vasa recta plasma.
65.4 mM [K.sup.+] solution was made by substituting 60 mM NaCl in the normal solution with equimolar KCl.
Presumably, mosquitofish are like other secondary-division freshwater fishes (Darlington 1957), in that their blood is isosmotic
with seawater diluted to 7-10 ppt.
In brief, animals were euthanized by cervical dislocation, the brain quickly removed into ice-cold Krebs-Ringer solution [normally containing (in mM) NaCl, 125; KCl, 3.5; [KH.sub.2][PO.sub.4], 1.2; Mg[Cl.sub.2], 1.3; Ca[Cl.sub.2], 2.4, Na[HCO.sub.3], 26; and glucose, 10, pH 7.3] in which all NaCl was replaced with isosmotic
sucrose, blocked, and mounted on a vibratome with tissue-binding glue (Konishi, Osaka, Japan).
There is also a clear relationship between the structure and the osmotic pressure, as shown by the isosmotic
lines (measured in atmospheres) of a section of Ferocactus wislizenii (shown in the diagram of a cactus stem); the higher the osmotic pressure, the closer together the ridges and the better developed the vascular system.
HBOC-201 is a purified, sterile, isosmotic
glutaraldehydepolymerized bovine hemoglobin manufactured by Biopure Corp.
The three levels of salinities (1, 12, and 40 g/kg) simulate, respectively, (1) low salinity in a wet season, (2) a condition approximately isosmotic
to teleost extracellular body fluids, and (3) a hypersaline condition during a dry period.
For fixation for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), veligers were relaxed with isosmotic
MgCL until unresponsive, fixed for 1 h in 1 % Os[O.sub.4], dehydrated by transfers to successively higher concentrations of ethanol to 100%, and critical-point dried with C[O.sub.2].
Aquatic and land exercise training affects renal runction in rats under isosmotic
In this sense, osmotic and ionic regulation in crustaceans is composed of two processes, extracellular anisosmotic regulation, responsible for the maintenance of the osmolality and performed by the action epithelial enzymes like [Na.sup.+]/[K.sup.+] - ATPase, V-ATPase, HC03-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase (Freire et al., 2008; Garcon et al., 2013) and intracellular isosmotic
regulation, responsible for the maintenance of intracellular media through the adjustment of the concentration intracellular osmolytes, mainly free amino acids (Pequeux, 1995; McNamara et al., 2004; Augusto et al., 2007a, b; Faria et al., 2011).
Therefore, increases in osmolality, in values below the isosmotic
point of seminal plasma, could be the main responsible factor for sperm activation.