where [g.sup.c] is the isostatic compensation attraction (Moritz 1990, Sjoberg 2009), and [[delta]g.sup.cs] is the consolidated crust-stripped gravity disturbance (Tenzer et al.
where the second-order radial derivatives of the consolidated crust-stripped disturbing potential T csand the isostatic compensation potential [V.sup.c] are denoted as [T.sup.CS.sub.rr] and [V.sup.C.sub.rr], respectively.
The VMM isostatic gravity gradient was finally obtained from the consolidated crust-stripped gravity gradient after applying the isostatic compensation gradient (see Section 3).
Examples of the applied sediment isostatic compensation
include, but are not limited to, studies of paleobathymetry (e.g., ), evolution of sedimentary basins (e.g., [13-17]), thermal structure of the oceanic lithosphere (e.g., ), continental shelf basins (e.g., [19, 20]), and historical sea level (e.g., ).
Gravity then gradually adjusted the regional topography to keep pressures in the deep interior relatively constant, a process called isostatic compensation
. For example, high mountains of crust gradually sank into the higher-density mantle below until, like icebergs, the buoyancy of their "roots" compensated for the weight of the mountains above.
where [DELTA][g.sup.B] is the refined Bouguer gravity anomaly, and [g.sup.c] the gravitational attraction of isostatic compensation
masses (see also Bjerhammar, 1962, Chap.
An isostatic reduction was applied to the Bouguer anomalies to quantify the isostatic compensation effects allowing isostatic equilibrium to be restored.
The isostatic residual anomaly was calculated by removing the long wavelength gravity effects caused by isostatic compensation, i.e.
The FAGA amplitudes are smaller than the TGE amplitudes reflecting partial isostatic compensation of the terrain.
Therefore, the minimum and maximum TGE values of -452.12 mGals and 285.02 mGals, respectively, are also the extreme values that FAGA could take in a case of 0% isostatic compensation. Negative TGE (TGEmean = -51.21 mGals) are stronger over the Caribbean Sea than the Pacific Ocean.
TCFAGA at the Guiana Craton are close to zero suggesting nearly complete isostatic compensation. Local TCFAGA highs and lows may reflect the occurrence of lateral mass variations related to intrusive bodies without topographic expression (TGE = 0).