This can be done by isothermal compression
and expansion process which minimizes compression work and maximizes expansion work.
The isothermal compression
process in stage 1-2 could be achieved in several ways; (a) multi stage compression with intercooling (b) the addition of a non-evaporating heat transfer fluid such as water during the compression stroke, or (c) introduction of an evaporating fluid such as liquid nitrogen directly into the compression cylinder during the compression stroke.
* as a coolant, providing practically isothermal compression
within the compressor, thus enabling it to achieve far greater pressure ratios and differential pressures within acceptable discharge temperature limits;
In actual stirling engines the mass of gas in the dead volume is significant which undergoes isothermal compression
and expansion process .This resulted in minimum loss of work per cycle compared with theoretical results 
The thermal heat capacity of the HARS is higher than the gas, so as the gas is compressed the heat of compression is rapidly transferred into the HARS, thus stabilising the gas temperature and providing isothermal compression
. The HARS is subsequently cooled by the hydraulic fluid in the bottom of the cylinder, and then an external cooling circuit is used to cool this fluid.
Then, the constitutive equation and DRX kinetic model are obtained to characterize the deformation behavior in the isothermal compression
. Finally, the theoretical prediction results of DRX volume fraction were shown to be in agreement with experimental observations.
The high pressure compression in the nanomaterials is calculated by using isothermal equations (2), (6), (19), and (25) relative bulk modulus and relative isothermal compression
coefficient at different pressure is calculated by using (3), (7), (20), (26), (4), (9), (21), and (27), respectively.
With the aim of modelling the material behaviour as precisely as possible, flow rules obtained from isothermal compression
tests of AA5083 billets (16 mm in length and 8 mm in diameter) are used.
is well-known to reduce the power requirements by minimizing the temperature of the gas entering downstream stages.
In order to better understand the effects of heat generation during dynamic plastic deformation in PC, dynamic SHPB isothermal compression
tests were designed and conducted at essentially the same strain rates as the adiabatic tests described above.
2007) showed that, for a single stage refrigeration system operating with R134a between evaporating and condensing pressures of -27[degrees]C (80.6[degrees]F) and 42[degrees]C (107.6[degrees]F), isothermal compression
can be as high as 16% more efficient than isentropic compression.