Effects of mixed organic acids on the volatile fatty acids in feces of growing/finishing pigs (mg/g) Item CTR1 (1) MOA1 (1) MOA2 (1) Formic acid 0.14 (a) 0.05 (b) 0.05 (b) Acetic acid 2.28 (b) 3.50 (a) 3.03 (a) Propionic acid 1.02 1.58 1.40 Lactic acid 0.06 (d) 0.15 (c) 0.29 (c) Butyric acid 0.53 (b) 1.18 (a) 0.68 (b) Isobutyric acid 0.13 0.17 0.09 Valeric acid 0.17 0.25 0.22 Isovaleric acid
0.09 0.15 0.08 Total volatile fatty acid 4.41 (b) 7.03 (a) 5.84 (ab) Item SEM p-value Formic acid 0.01 <0.01 Acetic acid 0.16 0.01 Propionic acid 0.22 0.29 Lactic acid 0.05 0.06 Butyric acid 0.07 <0.01 Isobutyric acid 0.03 0.33 Valeric acid 0.06 0.60 Isovaleric acid
0.03 0.24 Total volatile fatty acid 0.44 0.03 SEM, standard error of the mean.
Butyric acid and isovaleric acid
together are sometimes used to imitate the dominant aromas.
Stool samples were analysed for short-chain fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid
) by gas chromatography.
Four fatty acids, including octanoic acid, hexanoic acid, decanoic acid, and isovaleric acid
, were identified in the wines in this study (Table 2).
nucleatum's byproducts of lipopolysaccharide, fimbriae, proteinases and at least five different short-chain fatty acids (SCFA): butyric acid, isobutryic acid, isovaleric acid
, propionic acid and acetic acid.
Characterizing the antifungal effects of isovaleric acid
. Danielle Joslin*, Mark Messmer*, Zackary Inman, and Chad Brooks, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee.
It is also possible that the minor constituents determined here such as, isovaleric acid
, isobutyric acid, 2-methyl-butyric acid, 3-hydroxy-3-butanone, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 2-phenyl ethyl acetate may be involved in certain mechanism of antifungal synergism (Bajpai et al.
For juniper, isovaleric acid
was detected in the second replicate but not the first, while valeric acid was detected in the first but not the second.
In addition to volatile phenols, Brettanomyces can synthesize a wide range of other compounds that smell "rancid" (isovaleric acid
), "mousey" and other descriptors.
Due to the isovaleric acid
released on the decomposition of the valepotriates, a distinctive pungent odor is produced (Mills 2000, Culpeper 1826).
The complexes of acetovaleric acid hydrazone [AVAH], acetylaldehyde valeric acid hydrazone [AAVAH], acetyl isovaleric acid
hydrazone [AIVA] and acety aldehyde varaleric acid hydrazone [AAIVAH] complexes with Cu(II) and Ni(II) sulphate have been reported to be of distorted octahedral symmetry with a promising antibacterial activity (4).
On the base of pharmacological studies (19992009) for the standardization and quality control of herbal medicinal plants, we have developed recommendations concerning historical and traditional priority--technology of production of ecologically sound standards of raw materials and products of medicinal, aromatic, spicery and poisonous plants of our country : Foeniculum vulgate L--essential oils-3-5%, flvonoids -0,5%; Valeriana officinalis L--exstracted solids 27,8%, essential oils- 2%, isovaleric acid
0,91; Melissa officinalis L--essential oils 0,33%, vitamins C 150 mg%, carotene 7mg%; Carum carvi L--essential oils--7,2%; Thymus vulgaris L--essential oils 2,2%, Salvia officinalis L2,5%; Hyoscyamus niger L--alkaloids -0,5%;