Butyric acid and isovaleric acid
together are sometimes used to imitate the dominant aromas.
The production of isovaleric acid
is occasionally observed, causing the strong odor.
nucleatum's byproducts of lipopolysaccharide, fimbriae, proteinases and at least five different short-chain fatty acids (SCFA): butyric acid, isobutryic acid, isovaleric acid
, propionic acid and acetic acid.
The foul odor of isovaleric acid
is the metabolic waste product of Staphylococcus epidermidis as it consumes leucine residues in human sweat.
It is also possible that the minor constituents determined here such as, isovaleric acid
, isobutyric acid, 2-methyl-butyric acid, 3-hydroxy-3-butanone, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 2-phenyl ethyl acetate may be involved in certain mechanism of antifungal synergism (Bajpai et al.
For juniper, isovaleric acid
was detected in the second replicate but not the first, while valeric acid was detected in the first but not the second.
Due to the isovaleric acid
released on the decomposition of the valepotriates, a distinctive pungent odor is produced (Mills 2000, Culpeper 1826).
The complexes of acetovaleric acid hydrazone [AVAH], acetylaldehyde valeric acid hydrazone [AAVAH], acetyl isovaleric acid
hydrazone [AIVA] and acety aldehyde varaleric acid hydrazone [AAIVAH] complexes with Cu(II) and Ni(II) sulphate have been reported to be of distorted octahedral symmetry with a promising antibacterial activity (4).
On the base of pharmacological studies (19992009) for the standardization and quality control of herbal medicinal plants, we have developed recommendations concerning historical and traditional priority--technology of production of ecologically sound standards of raw materials and products of medicinal, aromatic, spicery and poisonous plants of our country : Foeniculum vulgate L--essential oils-3-5%, flvonoids -0,5%; Valeriana officinalis L--exstracted solids 27,8%, essential oils- 2%, isovaleric acid
0,91; Melissa officinalis L--essential oils 0,33%, vitamins C 150 mg%, carotene 7mg%; Carum carvi L--essential oils--7,2%; Thymus vulgaris L--essential oils 2,2%, Salvia officinalis L2,5%; Hyoscyamus niger L--alkaloids -0,5%;
This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of isovalery-CoA to 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, and a deficiency of this enzyme results in toxic accumulation of isovaleric acid
and derivative organic acids.
The typical constituents of valerian roots are found to be valeric and isovaleric acid
, monoterpenes ([alpha]-pinene, [alpha]-fenchene, camphene), monoterpenic esters (bornyl acetate, myrtenyl acetate, myrtenyl isovaleriate), oxygen containing sesquiterpenes, and valerian cyclopentanoid sesquiterpenes such as valerenal, valerenone, valerenol, valerenyl acetate, valerenic acid, and valerenyl isovalerate.