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(zhäk'ərē`) [Fr.,=collection of Jacques, which is, like Jacques Bonhomme, a nickname for the French peasant], 1358, revolt of the French peasantry. The uprising was in part a reaction to widespread poverty during the Hundred Years War. Peasants revolted against the écorcheurs (mercenaries who fought in the war), who pillaged their land, and the nobles, who made extortionate demands but did not protect them. Beginning around Beauvais, north of Paris, the revolt spread over a wide area; castles were demolished, provisions stolen, and other violent acts committed. The leader, Guillaume Karle (or Cale), was captured and beheaded by Charles II of Navarre, and the mob was easily dispersed. The nobles took revenge by massacring thousands of the insurgents.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an antifeudal peasant insurrection in France in 1358.

The intensified feudal oppression, the economic ruin connected with the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453), and the plundering of mercenary soldiers provoked the uprising. New monetary taxations in order to ransom the king, who had been taken captive in 1356 at Poitiers, and new labor conscriptions introduced in May 1358 by a Compiegne ordinance to reconstruct the fortresses near Paris served as the stimulus for the Jacquerie. The insurrection began on May 28 in the small town of Saint-Leu-d’Esserent (in the Beauvais region) in response to the pillaging of the soldiers. In the next few days, it spread over a considerable area. Most of the insurrectionists were peasants. Artisans, petty traders, and representatives of the rural clergy joined the peasants. The well-to-do townspeople of Compiègne, Clermont, Rouen, Reims, Châlons-sur-Marne, Laon, Soissons, and other cities did not support the peasants, although the urban poor wanted to join them. Certain cities did participate in the movement, including Meaux, Beauvais, Senlis, Montdidier, and Cravant. The insurrectionists razed and burned down castles, houses, and estates of the aristocracy, destroyed documents containing records of the serfs’ obligations, and murdered noblemen. The uprising reached its greatest strength and organization in the Beauvais region and around the cities of Clermont, Compiegne, and Senlis, where Guillaume Cale (from the village of Mello) was operating with an extremely large detachment. In other districts, separate brigades arose, weakly connected to Cale’s. He attempted to unite the peasants, bring organization into their ranks, and enlist as allies the Parisians, who, headed by Etienne Marcel, had risen against the king in the capital. Cale applied to Marcel for aid. Detachments of Parisians, together with the peasants, destroyed several castles which were blockading Paris and preventing the transport of provisions. But when this objective had been attained, the townspeople returned to Paris. The peasants, deprived of their allies, weakly organized, and unprepared for a protracted struggle, were soon defeated. On June 10, near Mello and Montataire (in the Beauvais region), the cavalry army of Charles the Bad, king of Navarre, delivered the decisive blow to the main detachment. Cale was captured and given over to an agonizing execution. Subsequently, the nobility cruelly suppressed the uprising. According to the chroniclers’ evidence, the number of victims of aristocratic repressions reached 20,000 by June 24.

The Jacquerie left a deep mark on French history. It furthered the process of emancipation of the peasants from personal bondage.


Frantsuzskaia derevnia XII-XIV vv. I Zhakeriia: Dokumenty. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935. (Translated from French.)


Konokotin, A. V. “Zhakeriia 1358 g. vo Frantsii.” Uch. zap. Ivanovskogo gos. ped. instituta, 1964, vol. 35.
Luce, S. Histoire de la Jacquerie. Paris, 1859.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Boxes feature creates an awkward read especially when combined with the frequent cross-referencing to Jacqueries and Peasants Without the Party.
Jacqueries (popular revolts), such as that of the piqueteros in Argentina in 2001, are mentioned, and the authors note that these are somewhat spontaneous with only a minimal amount of organization.
College students read about these strains in the history of the enclosure movement in England, the Highland Clearances in Scotland, and jacqueries and peasant revolts on the Continent.
This book is a revised and shortened translation of the author's prize-winning Jacqueries et revolution dans la Chine du XXe siecle.
They appeal positively, for example, to the history of jacqueries. Is this meant as an example of how singularities might have an objective collective political presence?
Defining revolution in terms that exclude palace coups or localized jacqueries obscures key developments during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, for example.
Forms of popular mobilization, such as local jacqueries and "banditry" (a label universally applied by embattled regimes to delegitimize popular opposition groups), receive detailed description and sophisticated analysis, particularly their overwhelmingly localist loyalties, hyper-violence, and revanchisme.
10 Archives departementales de la Dordogne, Perigueux, B 844, cited in Jean Boutier, "Jacqueries en pays croquant: les revoltes paysannes en Aquitaine (decembre 1789-mars 1790)", Annales E.S.C., xxxiv (1979), p.
These forms, including peasant jacqueries, food riots, social banditry, charivari, and preindustrial crowds, are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Another thoughtful essay, "Guerre contadine e/o moti popolari in Russia" (Peasant Wars and/or Popular Uprisings in Russia [85-106]), discusses whether the rebellions of Ivan Bolotnikov, Bohdan Khmel'nyts'kyi, Stepan (Sten'ka) Razin, Kondratii Bulavin, Emel'ian Pugachev, and others were genuine peasant wars or spontaneous and unfocused jacqueries and relates them to urban unrest in Russia and popular upheavals in Central and Western Europe.
Only when the small fry gathered to cause waves such as the Jacqueries does the violence of the laboratores become a political issue and not merely a judicial one.