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see IslamIslam
, [Arab.,=submission to God], world religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad. Founded in the 7th cent., Islam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions (with Judaism and Christianity). An adherent to Islam is a Muslim [Arab.,=one who submits].
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(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Jihad means "holy war." But how that word is interpreted is a matter of some debate, probably because Muhammad himself used the term in different ways. Sometimes he used jihad to describe the cultural and political spread of Islam. Sometimes he used it to refer to the spiritual war against evil both in society and in the human soul.

Following are a few passages from the Qur'an relating to jihad:

Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of God with their goods and their persons. God hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight. (4:95)

Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors. (2:190)

And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God; but if they cease, let there be no hostility to those who practice oppression. (2:193)

And if any strive (with might and main), they do so for their own souls; for Allah is free of all needs from all creation. (29:6)

Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things. (2:256)

The Religion Book: Places, Prophets, Saints, and Seers © 2004 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Arabic, “holy war,” literally, “struggle” or “persevere”), one of the precepts of Islam, supported by the Koran (for example, sura 9, verse 29), according to which all Muslims able to do battle must carry out holy wars against unbelievers. The teachings developed by scholars of Muslim law state that the entire world is divided into a “land of Islam” (or “region of faith”) and a “war territory” (countries inhabited by non-Muslims, or unbelievers). The idea of jihad was widely used by the ruling strata of Muslim feudal society to inflame fanaticism and to unify Muslims under the banner of religion. The call to jihad was often used against “external enemies” as well.

At times, under conditions of combat against colonialists, calls to jihad served the interest of defensive war and the simultaneous defense of religion, as, for example, in the Sudan during the Mahdist uprising at the end of the 19th century.

Jihad is also called ghazawat (Arabic, literally a “raid,” “campaign,” or “attack”).

In recent times in Muslim countries the jihad has been a call to war in defense of the fatherland.


Petrushevskii, I. P. Islam vlrane v VII-XV vekakh. Leningrad, 1966. Pages 80-83.
Encyclopédic de ïlslam, vol. 2. Leiden-Paris, 1965. Pages 551-53.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


, jehad
1. Islam a holy war against infidels undertaken by Muslims in defence of the Islamic faith
2. Islam the personal struggle of the individual believer against evil and persecution
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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He was able to convince men who would not normally sit in the same room with each other to fight together for the common goal of the Jehad.
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Jehad Kazim, Director, of Legal Services, Dubai Chamber , said that the visit to the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority was very useful as it opened up the doors to enhanced cooperation and exchange of expertise and knowledge for better serving the business community of Dubai as she lauded the excellent role played by the TRA in elevating the quality of e-services in the country while upgrading it to global standards.
Jehad Kazim, Director, Legal Services Department, Dubai Chamber, said that franchising is an excellent opportunity for rapid growth with low capital investment.
Mae Jehad Mashhrawi yn gweithio i''r BBC fel golygydd fideo i Wasanaeth Arabaidd y Gorfforaeth yn Gaza.
"The northern refineries' staff managed to operate the Salah al-Din unit 2, which produces 70 barrels everyday after completing maintenance," Essam Jehad told Aswat al-Iraq news agency, noting that the unit's production was added to the refinery's production to reach more than 300, 0000 barrels, the highest this year.
Jehad al-Rasheed, Yamama Cement's top executive,said in June his firm would offset the impact of an export ban on its earnings by investing abroad if the year-long blockage lasted longer.
Jehad Kazim, Director, Legal Services Department, Dubai Chamber, informed that the workshop was organized in line with the Chamber's strategic objective of supporting the development of business.