The obturator externus bursa is a potential space located between the obturator externus tendon and the ischiofemoral capsular ligaments at the posterior aspect of the hip joint capsule
. It communicates with the hip joint in all cases, and is considered by some to represent an articular recess rather than a true bursa.
Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts mostly originate from the facet joint capsule
and are most commonly located at the L4-5 spinal level. The diagnosis is usually made by the presence of a contrast-enhanced capsule on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, LISCs may give rise to clinical symptoms including neurogenic claudication, radiculopathy, and low back pain, when it extends to the lumbar spinal canal and compresses the neural elements.
A, Pre-injection image demonstrates a fluid-filled defect (arrow) of the deep medial joint capsule
. B, Image acquired during injection demonstrates the needle tip (asterisk) positioned within the medial capsular defect.
LSS is a condition in which the spinal canal becomes narrow, thus pressing on nerves and blood vessels in it.7 This abnormal narrowing is caused by disc herniation, Ligamentum Flavum (LF) hypertrophy, facet joint capsule
hypertrophy, and osteophyte formation.4 Symptoms of LSS include gluteal, lower extremity pain, LBP, weakness, and dysesthesia.
To do this a reference point was taken 3 mm posterior of the anterior crest of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, which gives access to the joint capsule
; the capsule was penetrated by the needle immediately above this reference point and the MIA solution was injected slowly into the intra-articular region.
They are thought to come about from myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue encompassing the joint capsule
. Trauma and inflammation have been suggested to play a role [1, 3].
Some indications for carpal ultrasonography are painful carpus joint; joint swelling to check for synovial effusion and thickening of the joint capsule
; inconclusive radiographic evaluation, pre-surgical carpal planning; quick assessment in the field; previous treatment failure; and to evaluate the thickness of articular cartilage in foals (incomplete ossification) (REEDING, 2001a; REEDING, 2001b).
The concept that the cyst is a simple herniation of the joint capsule
is unlikely due to a lack of synovial lining within the cyst itself.
The technique for arthrography was developed by injecting tinted latex into the metatarsophalangeal joint capsule
of the excised limb of an ostrich aged 215 days.
The incision was made to the skin along the medial side of the patella from the anterior the knee of the right hindlimb, the joint capsule
was deployed, and the patella was inverted lateral side.
One researcher demonstrated that SSB was a separate pouch.[sup] However, others believed that SSB was actually the superior subscapularis recess (SSR), which is an outpouching of the glenohumeral joint capsule
.[sup],, Whether or not the SSB and SSR are two different bursae must be confirmed.