We have a great joking relationship
about retirement," says Spielberg.
That's the joking relationship
, which keeps Malians faithful to the tradition.
The joking relationship is frequently analysed as a cathartic process for defusing social tension.
For a description of joking relationships in Songhay-Zarma societies, see Olivier de Sardan (1982: 42-8).
Among the Ambo (Stefaniszyn 1950), the institution of the joking relationship was called a 'funerary relationship', as 'funeral friends' played significant roles in performing the mourning rituals of those with whom they had been in a 'funeral friendship'.
Also, joking relationships regulating the relations between generations are customarily enacted during funerals.
Radcliffe-Brown (1940; 1949) famously analysed formal joking relationships that permitted disrespect as enabling the control of potentially tense social interaction.
Whereas joking relationships are classically studied as relationships between (real or fictive) kin, in this urban environment humour helped to establish relationships across ethnic and other divisions (cf.
He spoke of two types of joking relationships, a symmetrical one in which each of two persons is able to tease and poke fun at the other and an asymmetrical relationship in which one of two persons is able to tease and rpake fun of the other while the other cannot retaliate (p.
Lundberg, examining joking relationships in an electric motor repair shop, found the same asymmetrical joking patterns (Lundberg, 1969; p.
The other group members recognize that the novice is powerless and nonthreatening, and they freely inlcude him or her in the pattern of joking relationships
I build upon this argument, analysing the jokes of female market vendors in a place where joking relationships
are not formalized.