justice of the peace

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justice of the peace,

official presiding over a type of police courtpolice court,
court with jurisdiction limited to minor offenses, chiefly the least grave misdemeanors and breaches of municipal ordinances. In practice the trial is usually held before a judge sitting without a jury.
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. In some states of the United States the justices, who are usually elected, have jurisdiction over petty civil and criminal cases as well as having such duties as the issuing of search warrants and the performance of marriage services. The justice of the peace was formerly of greater importance than he is at present. The establishment of the office throughout England in 1360 represented a further extension of royal authority to local government, especially to rural areas. The justices, selected from the gentry, enjoyed extensive administrative and police authority, and they had judicial power over most crimes. The office was established also in the American colonies, but by the latter part of the 19th cent. it had been relegated to a much less central role, especially in administrative areas, in both England and the United States.

justice of the peace

1. (in Britain) a lay magistrate, appointed by the crown or acting ex officio, whose function is to preserve the peace in his area, try summarily such cases as are within his jurisdiction, and perform miscellaneous administrative duties
2. (in Australia and New Zealand) a person authorised to administer oaths, attest instruments, and take declarations
References in periodicals archive ?
A systematic survey of popular guides to the law aimed at justices of the peace, constables, and other peace officers provides an excellent set of sources for exploring how the concepts of self-defense, the right to keep or travel with arms, and the need to balance these claims against the preservation of the peace evolved in the more than two centuries following the Glorious Revolution.
implication was that all justices of the peace had been terminated, with
The Hon Minister of Justice has already taken the initiative steps on the appointment intelligent persons of the area as Justices of the Peace in the Northern and Eastern Provinces in a bid to maintain peace and order in the region.
87) The instructional literature for Justices of the Peace also stressed the importance of chastity.
After blasting the high court's ruling, Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton, the state's top lawyer, issued an opinion last week saying that federal and state religious freedom laws protect county clerks, justices of the peace and judges who opt out of issuing same-sex marriage licenses or performing same-sex wedding ceremonies because they believe it violates their religious beliefs.
The Springfield clerk and his assistant clerk refer couples to local justices of the peace.
SCOTLAND'S communities are crying out for people to dish out law and order - and more than 50 Justices of the Peace are needed to help with the country's judicial proceedings.
Oregon law does not require justices of the peace to be lawyers.
Seven women and a man were sworn in as Justices of the Peace during a special ceremony at South Tyneside Magistrates' Court in South Shields.
Another change is the increased use of court adjuncts like Masters in Chambers and Justices of the Peace.
But informers needed justices of the peace and excise commissioners who were willing to convict the retailers and help protect the informers from an increasingly irate populace.
Queensland Justices of the Peace (JPs) and Commissioners for Declarations (Cdecs) have a new set of tools to help them deliver their vital work for Queenslanders.