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, calif, kalif, khalif
Islam the title of the successors of Mohammed as rulers of the Islamic world, later assumed by the Sultans of Turkey
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the spiritual and secular head of the Muslim community and of the theocratic Muslim state, or caliphate. The caliphs were regarded at first as deputies of Allah’s messenger Muhammad, and later—from the time of the Umayyads—as deputies of Allah himself on this earth. Beginning with the first half of the tenth century, the title of caliph was adopted by the Fatimids and by the Umayyads in Spain, as well as by the Abbasids. After the fall of the Abbasid caliphate in the 13th century, the title was used by the heads, or sultans, of certain Muslim states (for example, the Turkish sultans) who claimed spiritual sovereignty over all the world’s Muslims. See references under .

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hamdan Al Maktoum owns fellow French raider and Hills's mount Kalif d'Or, as well as Djeldor de Bozouls, trained near Newmarket by Gill Duffield and the mount of Willie Supple.
147 + 105 (Arabic text); "Und der Kalif lachte, bis er auf den Ruckenfiel": Ein Beitrag zur Phraseologie und Stilkunde des klassischen Arabisch, vols.
The Prince has already tasted chart success with dance act The Kalif. He rapped on their hit song Walk Like A Champion.
Henri Hippolyte Girardot Victor Antoine Chappey Emile Atmen Kalif Sabine Aure Atika Solange Florence Pernel Yannick/Antoine Gad Elmaleh Corinne Mathilde Seigner Ahmed Roschdy Zem
Other chapters contain the makings of the Book of Friendship that the author avers she could write, offering pen portraits, among others, of the publisher Fritz Landshoff ("eine Figur aus Tausend-und-eine Nacht, ein Kalif, europaisch verkleidet"), the Viennese-born Paris book dealer Martin Flinker, and the Korean-born German composer Isang Yun (the subject of Rinser's book Der verwundete Drache).
HC lost several key players -- senior linebacker Tyler Zeoli, sophomore free safety Luke Ford and junior wide receiver Kalif Raymond among them -- to injury during the year.
(6.) Keim P, Kalif A, Schupp J, Hill K, Travis SE, Richmond K, et al.
LAYLA KALIF: Shakespeare In Love (Edel) - A beautiful melody, folksy vocals and poetic lyrics.
Junior wide receiver/return specialist Kalif Raymond suffered a broken collarbone.
“We thank all our 70 users who tried the new option during these beta testing period as they provided invaluable direct and indirect feedback to improve the service,” Dana Kalif, FxStat marketing manager said.