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Hibiscus cannabinus. An annual, short-day, herbaceous plant of the Malvaceae family that is cultivated for its stem fibers. Kenaf is sometimes used to refer to Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima.



(also deccan hemp; Hibiscus cannabinus), a species of annual fiber plants of the family Malvaceae. It apparently grows wild in southern Africa and central India. The plant has a branching taproot, which extends 30–50 cm (sometimes 2 m) into the soil. The erect stem, which is ribbed or rounded, has thorns and measures 1–5 m tall. The leaves are large. The middle leaves are digitipartite; the lower, cordate; and the upper, lanceolate. The large, axillary, pentamerous flowers are cream colored with a bright crimson center inside the corolla. The fruit is a five-valved capsule, densely covered with stiff hairs, which irritate human skin. The gray seeds are reniform or triangular; 1,000 seeds weigh 20–28 g. The plant is thermophilic and hygrophilous. The seeds begin to sprout at 12°-14°C. The vegetation period is 125–145 days.

The dry stems of native varieties contain 16–20 percent fiber. The fiber, which is highly hygroscopic and durable, is used to make sacking, tarpaulin, string, and rope. The boon is used to make paper and building slabs. The seeds contain up to 20 percent oil, which is used for industrial purposes. The oil cakes are used for fertilizer and fodder.

Kenaf is grown most widely in India, where the plant was first cultivated; more than 300,000 hectares (ha) were cultivated there in 1970. Kenaf is also grown in China, Iran, Brazil, the United States, and other countries. It was imported to Russia in the 19th century. The plant is grown in small areas of Uzbekistan. The average harvest of dry stems is 40–60 centners per ha. The best varieties are 3876 and Uzbek 1574. The crops are treated with mineral fertilizers (90–120 kg/ha of N and P2O5 and 45–60 kg/ha of K2O). In wide-row sowings the seed average is 20–30 kg/ha. During the stage of growth and development the crop is watered four to six times (the watering rate is 800–900 cu m per ha). Kenaf is picked for its fiber when the first pods turn light green and the lanceolate leaves appear at the stalk apex. The bast is removed from the fresh stalks in the field; after it is dried, it is sent to a bast-processing factory.

Diseases of the kenaf plant include gray stem rot and alternaria blight. Insect pests include noctuid moths, plant bugs of the family Miridae, the species Poeciloscylus cognatus, aphids, and thrips.


Lubianye kul’tury. Moscow, 1955. (Under the general editorship of S. S. Berliand.)
Minkivich, I. A. Rastenievodstvo. Moscow, 1965.


References in periodicals archive ?
2-3 in the volume) in "Building 300" at Horvat Kanaf and dated them to the the late sixth or early seventh century C.E.
Already forced to race on the unfavoured stands' side, Kanaf was short of room as he was beginning his run and still had petrol in the tank at the finish, even after showing a strong burst to finish on the heels of the leaders in fifth.
Trained by Musabah Al Muhairi, who was a dominant force at the track last season where he amassed 21 wins, Kanaf will be ridden by Dane O'Neill who said: "The horse goes particularly well at Jebel Ali.
Horses to follow: Attracted To You, Bartolomeu, Bridgefield, Earl Of Carrick, Flambeau, Forest Row, Fort Bastion, Forte Dei Marmi, Gerfalcon, Isabella Gem, Kanaf, Kirthill, Ladyship, Man Of Action, Markab, Mezmaar, Mon Visage, Norman Orphan, Palazzo Bianco, Pintura, Premier Loco, Red Duke, Salford Art, Sooraah, Swingland, Tinkertown, Yair Hill.
But it is Al Muhairi's Kanaf, a five-time winner at the track, who looks to pose the biggest threat to Roicead.
It doesn't matter if you went close in that, or if you were blown away - just running in the race is a massive chance to your success here and a scan through the remaining runners means the stats tell us to lose Quest For Success, Atlantic Sport, Brave Prospector, Secret Asset, Crown Choice, Edinburgh Knight, Fitz Flyer, Mon Cadeaux, Kanaf and Global City.
A son of Oasis Dream, Touch Gold is one of only two horses, the other being Kanaf, who have strung together four wins this term.
The sponsors - who make Mac's Power 12-1 favourite - quote Hoof It at 14-1, the same price as the Ed Dunlop-trained Stewards' Cup fifth Kanaf, who could miss out on a trip to Scotland in favour of Doncaster the previous weekend.
Horses to follow: Abrasive, Alnama, Beauchamp Xiara, Big Issue, Chachamaidee, Channel Squadron, Codemaster, Colour Scheme, Danderek, El Viento, Excel Bolt, Glen's Diamond, I'm A Dreamer, Kanaf, Mass Rally, Melange, Miss Zooter, Moorland Boy, Morache Music, Mr Optimistic, Nazreef, Ollon, Santefisio, Satwa Moon, Smarty Socks, Sunbow, The Which Doctor, Valencha, Winter's Night.
Kanaf went one better than Firstknight, landing his fourth Jebel Ali course and distance victory of the season when landing the 1,400m handicap under Paul Hanagan, riding for his main employer, Shaikh Hamdan Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Deputy Ruler of Dubai and UAE Minister of Finance.
Ed Dunlop was unfortunate not to go closer with the unlucky-in-running fifth Kanaf in the opening race of the Ebor meeting, but he looks to have a sound chance of saddling a winner at Chepstow today thanks to the progressive Mina's Boy in the Western Daily Press Handicap (4.30).
Horses to follow: Abrasive, Absinthe, Alnama, Annes Rocket, Beauchamp Xiara, Big Issue, Chachamaidee, Channel Squadron, Codemaster, Colour Scheme, Danderek, Dhaamer, Dualagi, Easy Ticket, El Viento, Excel Bolt, I'm A Dreamer, Kanaf, Mass Rally, Melange, Miss Zooter, Moorland Boy, Morache Music, Mr Optimistic, Nazreef, Ollon, Pickwick, Poet, Santefisio, Satwa Moon, Scrapper Smith, Silent Act, Smarty Socks, Sunbow, The Which Doctor, Valencha, Winter's Night.