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(cell and molecular biology)
The complement of chromosomes characteristic of an individual, species, genus, or other grouping.
An organized array of the chromosomes from a single cell, grouped according to size, centromere position, and banding pattern, if any.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



chromosome set, the aggregate features of the chromosomes (numaber, size, shape, details of microscopic structure) in the cells of an organism of a given species.

The concept of the karyotype was introduced by the Soviet geneticist G. A. Levitskii in 1924. The karyotype is one of the most important genetic characteristics of a species, since every species has a particular karyotype that is different from that of related species (karyosystematics, a new branch of systematics, is based on this phenomenon). The fixed nature of the karyotype in the cells of a given organism is ensured by mitosis and, within a given species, by meiosis. The karyotype of an organism may change if the gametes are altered by mutation. The karyotype of individual cells sometimes differs from the species karyotype because of chromosomal or genomic somatic mutations. The karyotype of diploid cells consists of two haploid sets (genomes) from each parent; each chromosome of such a set has a homologue from the other set. The karyotype of males may differ from that of females in the shape (sometimes also in number) of the sex chromosomes, in which case they are described separately.

The chromosomes in a karyotype are studied during the metaphase stage of mitosis. The description of a karyotype must be accompanied by a microphotograph or sketch. In systematizing karyotypes, the pairs of homologous chromosomes are arranged (for example) in order of decreasing length, beginning with the longest pair. The pairs of sex chromosomes are put at the end of the series. Pairs of chromosomes of equal length are identified by the position of the centromere (primary constriction), which divides the chromosome into two arms, by the position of the nucleolar organizer (secondary constriction), and by the shape of the satellite. The karyotypes of several thousand species of plants (wild and cultivated) and animals and man have been studied.


Rukovodstvo po tsitologii, vol. 2. Edited by A. S. Troshin. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Lobashev, M. E. Genetika, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1967.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The two karyotyped specimen of Oligoryzomys nigripes presented 2n = 62; NA = 82, due the variation in autosome fundamental number due to pericentric inversions (Yonenaga et al., 1976; Myers and Carleton, 1981).
This recommendation may raise ethical concerns, particularly in cases in which the mother has not previously been karyotyped and is unaware of having an altered X karyotype.
Hordei, four females, and six males each were successfully karyotyped. Preparations with clear and welldistributed chromosomes were examined under a light microscope "Zeiss 63" equipped with a JVC TK-1270 colour video camera and Image Grabber, then processed with Adobe Photoshop.
indica as two potential reservoirs of ZCL in some endemic areas of Isfahan, Iran with confirmed morphological and karyotyped identification.
A handful of recombinants (XL-2 linked to XR and one to XR-1) have been found in nature out of the thousands of wild adults karyotyped, so "wrong" combinations cannot be lethal (Levitan 1992; M.
Twelve morulae that were accurately karyotyped as being from X[Y.sup.*] progeny, resulted in 9 XY and 3 XX embryos.
Sufficiently spread C-banded chromosomes were obtained in 19 plants and were karyotyped. Observations were made with a Zeiss Axiophot Microscope (Carl Zeiss, Inc., Thornwood, NY) with an attached computerized image analysis system.
Wilton, who heads the genetic and molecular research laboratory at the Melbourne (Australia) IVF clinic, reported that 51 blastomeres were karyotyped from embryos removed from nine patients with multiple recurrent in vitro fertilization (IVF) failures.
Four specimens of Spilogale were karyotyped during the course of this study.
Embryos from 55 gravid females were karyotyped (a subset of the total examined by Reed and Sites 1995) and given mother and offspring karyotypes; 44 families were large enough that the father's karyotype could be inferred unambiguously on the assumption that each clutch is the product of one mating.