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(cell and molecular biology)
The complement of chromosomes characteristic of an individual, species, genus, or other grouping.
An organized array of the chromosomes from a single cell, grouped according to size, centromere position, and banding pattern, if any.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



chromosome set, the aggregate features of the chromosomes (numaber, size, shape, details of microscopic structure) in the cells of an organism of a given species.

The concept of the karyotype was introduced by the Soviet geneticist G. A. Levitskii in 1924. The karyotype is one of the most important genetic characteristics of a species, since every species has a particular karyotype that is different from that of related species (karyosystematics, a new branch of systematics, is based on this phenomenon). The fixed nature of the karyotype in the cells of a given organism is ensured by mitosis and, within a given species, by meiosis. The karyotype of an organism may change if the gametes are altered by mutation. The karyotype of individual cells sometimes differs from the species karyotype because of chromosomal or genomic somatic mutations. The karyotype of diploid cells consists of two haploid sets (genomes) from each parent; each chromosome of such a set has a homologue from the other set. The karyotype of males may differ from that of females in the shape (sometimes also in number) of the sex chromosomes, in which case they are described separately.

The chromosomes in a karyotype are studied during the metaphase stage of mitosis. The description of a karyotype must be accompanied by a microphotograph or sketch. In systematizing karyotypes, the pairs of homologous chromosomes are arranged (for example) in order of decreasing length, beginning with the longest pair. The pairs of sex chromosomes are put at the end of the series. Pairs of chromosomes of equal length are identified by the position of the centromere (primary constriction), which divides the chromosome into two arms, by the position of the nucleolar organizer (secondary constriction), and by the shape of the satellite. The karyotypes of several thousand species of plants (wild and cultivated) and animals and man have been studied.


Rukovodstvo po tsitologii, vol. 2. Edited by A. S. Troshin. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Lobashev, M. E. Genetika, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1967.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Foe detecting structural abnormalities and for karyotyping, a GTG banding is done.
Finally, slides were prepared from the sediment, stained with Giemsa stain and visualized under microscope for chromosomal counting/ karyotyping.9,10 Data was entered in excel and analyzed with Epi-Info to calculate frequencies of different genetic disorders.
Similarly, chromosomal specificity of molecular markers, SSR, karyotyping can easily be investigated, Waminal et al., (2018).
This category includes patients with karyotyping that fits neither favourable nor adverse prognosis group.
Deletions of these regions are generally not detectable or may be missed by conventional karyotyping. The syndromes have well-described phenotypes and known clinical significance.
The first prenatal diagnostic tool is the ultrasound which, if abnormal, is traditionally followed by karyotyping and/or FISH analysis.
Because the study collection protocol provided only the karyotyping result of amniocytes for these samples, no pure fetal tissue was available for sequencing or array confirmation.
There is great interest in identifying and validating new methods to monitor response to TKI therapy that are less invasive than karyotyping. Molecular testing of BCR-ABL1 transcript levels is typically done by highly sensitive quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using either PB or BM samples.
Fish karyotyping is commonly exploited to confirm taxonomic identification and inter-population variations and can play an important role in sex control, better performance, rapid production of inbred lines (Thorgard and Allen, 1987; Lin and Peter, 1991), detecting environmental mutagens and genotoxic pollutants (Kligerman et al., 1975; Manna, 1989).
have entered into an agreement in which both companies will engage in combined sales and marketing of an integration product that will directly link the GenASIs imaging and analysis instrument by ASI and the CellWriter[TM] automated dispensing system for FISH and Karyotyping by BioDot.