# kernel

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## kernel

1. the edible central part of a seed, nut, or fruit within the shell or stone
2. the grain of a cereal, esp wheat, consisting of the seed in a hard husk
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Kernel

in mathematics, a function K(x, y) that defines the integral transformation

which transforms the function f(y) into the function ɸ(x). The theory of such transformations is connected with the theory of linear integral equations.

## kernel

[′kərn·əl]
(atomic physics)
An atom that has been stripped of its valence electrons, or a positively charged nucleus lacking the outermost orbital electrons.
(botany)
The inner portion of a seed.
A whole grain or seed of a cereal plant, such as corn or barley.
(computer science)
A computer program that must be modified before it can be used on a particular computer.
The programs that form the most essential part of a computer's operating system.
(mathematics)
For any mapping ƒ from a group A to a group B, the kernel of ƒ, denoted ker ƒ, is the set of all elements a of A such that ƒ(a) equals the identity element of B.
For a homomorphism h from a group G to a group H, this consists of all elements of G which h sends to the identity element of H.
For Fredholm and Volterra integral equations, this is the function K (x, t).
For an integral transform, the function K (x, t) in the transformation which sends the function ƒ(x) to the function ∫ K (x,t)ƒ(t) dt = F (x).
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## kernel

(Note: NOT "kernal").

1. <operating system> The essential part of Unix or other operating systems, responsible for resource allocation, low-level hardware interfaces, security etc. See also microkernel.

2. <language> An essential subset of a programming language, in terms of which other constructs are (or could be) defined. Also known as a core language.