ketogenesis


Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to ketogenesis: ketogenic diet

ketogenesis

[¦kēd·ō′jen·ə·səs]
(biochemistry)
Production of ketone bodies.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The anti-ketogenic effect of glucose is mainly to suppression of hepatic ketogenesis by two identified anti-ketogenic mechanisms decreasing the supply of free fatty acids to liver and eliciting metabolic changes within the liver itself that are likely to lead to a decrease in the rate of hepatic ketone formation (Treacher et al.
This heterodimer subsequently binds response elements that regulate the expression of genes encoding enzymes or proteins involved in beta oxidation, fatty acid (FA) uptake, adipogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, ketogenesis, bile acid synthesis, triglyceride turnover, and IR [12,13].
Increased hepatic FGF21 acts as an endocrine hormone to coordinate the adaptive starvation responses including gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis [8, 9].
Hue, "Comparison of the effects of various amino acids on glycogen synthesis, lipogenesis and ketogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes," The Biochemical Journal, vol.
In addition to FFA, growth factors such as insulin growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a secreted protein from liver, involved in the control of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and ketogenesis were recently found to induce the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial UCP2, UCP3, and superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2) involved in antioxidative pathways in cardiomyocytes in culture preventing inflammation and hypertrophic process [53].
Insulin suppresses both NEFA mobilization and ketogenesis and should be given in combination with glucose to prevent hypoglycemia (Singh and Kasaralikar, 1990).
These findings revealed the suppression of lipid [beta]-oxidation in SH and ketogenesis in both syndromes in energy production.
Eventually, this treatment stimulates the oxidation of NADH by reactivating the normal oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates, simultaneously reducing the NADH/[NAD.sup.+] ratio and halting ketogenesis. Insulin therapy is not recommended unless underlying DKA is present.
In T2DM, there is normally sufficient insulin to inhibit ketogenesis. HHNS Lacks symptoms of ketoacidosis so there is often a more profound dehydration (10 or more litres of body water, compared with four to seven litres in DKA) and higher PGC when the person finally presents.
Strikingly, DEHP also robustly induced the hepatic expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), a gene recently described to control lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver and lipolysis in the adipose tissue (Badman et al.
This effect can be attributed, at least in part, to the hypoglycemic action of sulphonylureas, since the primary actions of glucagon are to enhance the metabolism of stored glycogen, and to facilitate and/or increase gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. Enhanced release of insulin (and somatostatin) inhibits glucagon secretion via inhibition of pancreatic [alpha]-cell secretion.
Ketone bodies are an alternative fuel produced in the liver, in a process referred to as ketogenesis, in the event of reduced availability of glucose [1].