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The sense of position and movement of the limbs and the sense of muscular tension. The awareness of the orientation of the body in space and the direction, extent, and rate of movement of the limbs depend in part upon information derived from sensory receptors in the joints, tendons, and muscles. Information from these receptors, called proprioceptors, is normally integrated with that arising from vestibular receptors (which signal gravitational acceleration and changes in velocity of movements of the head), as well as from visual, auditory, and tactile receptors. Sensory information from certain proprioceptors, particularly those in muscles and tendons, need not reach consciousness, but can be used by the motor system as feedback to guide postural adjustments and control of well-practiced or semiautomatic movements such as those involved in walking.

Receptors for proprioception are the endings of peripheral nerve fibers within the capsule or ligaments of the joints or within muscle. These endings are associated with specialized end organs such as Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini's cylinders, and Golgi organs (the latter resembling histologic Golgi structures in the skin), and muscle spindles. See Cutaneous sensation, Sensation, Somesthesis

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


The reception of internal stimuli.
Sensory awareness of one's location with regard to the external environment.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Auditory .56 Cutaneous .56 .60 Kinaesthetic .62 .64 .60 Gustatory .47 .49 .66 .52 Olfactory .47 .45 .54 .51 .55 Organic .67 .50 50 .54 .51 .58 Note.
The arrangement of differences in the normalized coordination motor abilities suggests substantially better results in climbers in terms of speed, precision and accuracy of movements (test time, z = -0.61, test mistakes, z = -0.50), visual and motor coordination (test time, z = -0.54), temporal parameters of kinaesthetic differentiation (z = -0.80), spatial orientation (test time, z = -0.61), and spatial and dynamic kinaesthetic differentiation (test time, z = -0,66).
In the group of expert climbers, favourable relationships were recorded between effectiveness of climbing and speed, accuracy and precision of movements (test time) and spatial-dynamic kinaesthetic differentiation ability (for the parameters of test time and number of errors).
Compared to other athletes, a "model climber" obtained best scores in tests that evaluated spatial-dynamic kinaesthetic differentiation (z = -1.06 in the test No.
I also wondered how a kinaesthetic learner had managed to sit still at a computer screen for so long, with only minimal twirling?
Students prefer mostly the visual and auditory mode of perception than the kinaesthetic mode.
Now try to imagine your body moving via a kinaesthetic image (without any visual experience of yourself), so that you feel as if you are moving without any actual movement occurring.
For Merleau-Ponty, recognizing oneself in a mirror is possible only if one has a kinaesthetic body.
Commonly, internal kinaesthetic imagery has been associated with sport skills that require a complex set of movements to be performed in a relatively static environment, such as diving and gymnastics (Mahoney & Avener, 1977; Taylor, 1993).
Jowdy, Murphy & Durtschi (1989) have proposed that external imagery may have more error detection and analytic properties, and may therefore be used early in motor skill development; whereas internal imagery may be used later in skill development when the athlete has improved kinaesthetic abilities and internal representations of the skill.